YouTube – Wikipedia

Online television chopine owned by Google
not to be confused with YouTube ( distribution channel )
YouTube is an american on-line video share and social media platform owned by Google. It was launched on February 14, 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. It is the second most visit web site, right after Google itself. YouTube has more than one billion monthly users [ 7 ] who jointly watch more than one billion hours of television each day. [ 8 ] As of May 2019, videos were being uploaded at a rate of more than 500 hours of contented per minute. [ 9 ] [ 10 ]

In October 2006, YouTube was bought by Google for $ 1.65 billion. [ 11 ] Google ‘s ownership of YouTube has besides changed its business exemplar ; it nobelium longer generates tax income from advertisements alone. YouTube now offers paid capacity such as movies and exclusive content. YouTube and approved creators participate in Google ‘s AdSense course of study, which generates more tax income for both parties. It has since evolved from a small video streaming platform to a large service with report revenues of $ 19.8 billion in 2020. [ 1 ] Since its purchase by Google, YouTube has expanded beyond the web site into mobile apps, network television, and the ability to link with other services. Video categories on YouTube include music video recording, video recording clips, news, short films, feature films, documentaries, sound recording recordings, movie trailers, teasers, live flow, vlogs, and more. Most content is generated by individuals. This includes collaborations between YouTubers and corporate sponsors. Since 2015, established media corporations such as Disney, ViacomCBS, and WarnerMedia have created and expanded their corporate YouTube channels to advertise to a larger audience. YouTube has had an unprecedented social impact, influencing popular culture, internet trends, and creating multimillionaire celebrities. Despite all its growth and achiever, YouTube has been widely criticized. criticism of YouTube includes ; the web site being used to facilitate the spread of misinformation, copyright issues, routine violations of its users ‘ privacy, enabling censoring, and endangering child safety and wellbeing .

History

Founding and initial growth ( 2005–2006 )

YouTube was founded by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. The three were all early employees of PayPal, which left them enriched after the company was bought by eBay. [ 12 ] Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. [ 13 ] According to a floor that has much been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen ‘s apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen remarked that the theme that YouTube was founded after a dinner party “ was probably identical strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a report that was identical digestible ”. [ 14 ] Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first base came from the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy, when Janet Jackson ‘s breast was concisely exposed by Justin Timberlake during the halftime read. Karim could not easily find video recording clips of the incidental and 2004 indian Ocean Tsunami on-line, which led to the theme of a television sharing locate. [ 15 ] Hurley and Chen said that the original mind for YouTube was a video version of an on-line date service, and had been influenced by the web site Hot or not. [ 14 ] [ 16 ] They created posts on Craigslist asking attractive women to upload videos of themselves to YouTube in commute for a $ 100 reward. [ 17 ] difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the web site ‘s founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. [ 18 ]
Broadcast Yourself” slogan was used until 2015. The YouTube logo was used from its launching until 2011. Another interpretation of this logo without their “ motto was used until 2015. YouTube began as a venture capital –funded technology inauguration. Between November 2005 and April 2006, the company raised money from a kind of investors with Sequoia Capital, $ 11.5 million, and Artis Capital Management, $ 8 million, being the largest two. [ 12 ] [ 19 ] YouTube ‘s early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. [ 20 ] In February 2005, the caller activated www.youtube.com. [ 21 ] The first gear video was upload April 23, 2005. Titled Me at the zoo, it shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo and can even be viewed on the site. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] In May, the caller launched a public beta and by November, a Nike ad featuring Ronaldinho became the first video to reach one million total views. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] The site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Clips at the meter were limited to 100 megabytes, a small as 30 seconds of footage. [ 28 ] contrary to popular impression, YouTube was not the beginning video-sharing locate on the Internet ; Vimeo was launched in November 2004, though that web site remained a side stick out of its developers from CollegeHumor at the time and did not grow much, either. [ 29 ] The workweek of YouTube ‘s launch, NBC-Universal ‘s Saturday Night Live ran a skit “ Lazy Sunday “ by The Lonely Island. Besides helping to bolster ratings and long-run viewership for Saturday Night Live, “ lazy Sunday ” ‘s status as an early on viral video helped establish YouTube as an crucial web site. [ 30 ] Unofficial uploads of the skit to YouTube draw in more than five million corporate views by February 2006 before they were removed when NBCUniversal requested it two months late based on copyright concerns. [ 31 ] Despite finally being taken down, these duplicate uploads of the skit helped popularize YouTube ‘s reach and led to the upload of more third-party message. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] The web site grew quickly and, in July 2006, the party announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being upload every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. [ 34 ] The choice of the identify www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named web site, www.utube.com. That web site ‘s owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube subsequently changed its web site to www.utubeonline.com. [ 35 ] [ 36 ]

Broadcast Yourself era ( 2006–2013 )

YouTube ‘s headquarters in San Bruno, California On October 9, 2006, Google announced that it had acquired YouTube for $ 1.65 billion in Google stock. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] The bargain was finalized on November 13, 2006. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Google ‘s acquisition launched new newfound interest in video-sharing sites ; IAC, which now owned Vimeo, focused on supporting the capacity creators to distinguish itself from YouTube. [ 29 ] It is at this fourth dimension YouTube issued the motto “ Broadcast Yourself ” .
YouTube logo from 2015 until 2017 The company experienced rapid growth. The Daily Telegraph wrote that in 2007, YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the integral Internet in 2000. [ 41 ] By 2010, the company had reached a market parcel of around 43 % and more than 14 billion views of television, according to comScore. [ 42 ] That year, the company simplified its interface in order to increase the time users would spend on the web site. [ 43 ] In 2011, more than three billion videos were being watched each sidereal day with 48 hours of new videos upload every moment. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] however, most of these views came from a relatively modest issue of video recording ; according to a software mastermind at that clock time, 30 % of video accounted for 99 % of views on the site. [ 47 ] That year, the company again changed its interface and at the same time, introduced a new logo with a dark shade of red. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] A subsequent interface exchange, designed to unify the have across desktop, television, and mobile, was rolled out in 2013. [ 50 ] By that point, more than 100 hours were being uploaded every minute, a number that would increase to 300 hours by November 2014. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] During this time, the company besides went through some organizational changes. In October 2006, YouTube moved to a new agency in San Bruno, California. [ 53 ] Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as a foreman executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory function and that Salar Kamangar would take over as heading of the ship’s company in October 2010. [ 54 ]

YouTube ‘s newly CEO ( 2014–2018 )

YouTube logo since 2017 Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube in February 2014. [ 55 ] In January 2016, YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $ 215 million. The building complex has 51,468 square metres ( 554,000 square feet ) of space and can family up to 2,800 employees. [ 56 ] YouTube officially launched the “ polymer ” redesign of its user interfaces based on Material Design lyric as its default, american samoa well a redesigned logo that is built around the overhaul ‘s maneuver button emblem in August 2017. [ 57 ] Through this time period, YouTube tried several modern ways to generate gross beyond advertisements. In 2013, YouTube launched a fly platform for subject providers to offer agio, subscription-based channels within the chopine. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] This feat was discontinued in January 2018 and relaunched in June, with US $ 4.99 channel subscriptions. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] These channel subscriptions complemented the existing Super Chat ability, launched in 2017, which allows viewers to donate between $ 1 and $ 500 to have their comment highlighted. [ 62 ] In 2014, YouTube announced a subscription service known as “ Music Key, ” which bundled ad-free streaming of music contented on YouTube with the existing Google Play Music service. [ 63 ] The serve continued to evolve in 2015, when YouTube announced YouTube Red, a new premium service that would offer ad-free access to all contentedness on the chopine ( succeeding the Music Key serve released the previous year ), premium original series, and films produced by YouTube personalities, equally well as background playback of content on mobile devices. YouTube besides released YouTube Music, a third app oriented towards streaming and discovering the music message hosted on the YouTube platform. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] [ 66 ] The company besides attempted to create products to appeal to specific kinds of viewers. YouTube released a mobile app known as YouTube Kids in 2015, designed to provide an have optimized for children. It features a simplify user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-appropriate subject, and parental manipulate features. [ 67 ] besides in 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming -oriented erect and app for videos and live cyclosis, intended to compete with the Amazon.com -owned Twitch. [ 68 ]

consolidation and controversy ( 2019–present )

By February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube were watched every day, and 400 hours of video were upload every minute. [ 8 ] [ 69 ] Two years late, the uploads had risen to more than 500 hours per moment. [ 9 ] During the COVID-19 pandemic, when most of the world was under stay-at-home orders, use of services such as YouTube greatly increased. One data fast estimated that YouTube was accounting for 15 % of all internet traffic, doubly its pre-pandemic level. [ 70 ] In reception to EU officials requesting that such services reduce bandwidth as to make certain aesculapian entities had sufficient bandwidth to share information, YouTube along with Netflix stated they would reduce streaming choice for at least thirty days as to cut bandwidth use of their services by 25 % to comply with the EU ‘s request. [ 71 ] YouTube late announced that they would continue with this move global : “ We continue to work closely with governments and network operators around the ball to do our function to minimize stress on the system during this unprecedented site. ” [ 72 ] The company was attacked on April 3, 2018, when a shoot occurred at YouTube ‘s headquarters in San Bruno, California, which wounded four and resulted in one death ( the shot ). [ 73 ] Following a 2018 complaint alleging violations of the Children ‘s Online Privacy Protection Act ( COPPA ), [ 74 ] the company was fined $ 170 million by the FTC for collecting personal information from minors under the age of 13. [ 75 ] YouTube was besides ordered to create systems to increase children ‘s privacy. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] Following criticisms of its implementation of those systems, YouTube started treating all video recording designated as “ made for kids ” as apt under COPPA on January 6, 2020. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] Joining the YouTube Kids app, the party created a oversee modality, designed more for tweens, in 2021. [ 80 ] Additionally in an effort to compete with TikTok, YouTube has released YouTube Shorts which allows users to create short videos to music. During this period, YouTube entered disputes with early technical school companies. For over a year, in 2018 and 2019, there was no YouTube app available for Amazon Fire products. In 2020, Roku removed the YouTube television app from its streaming shop after the two companies were ineffective to reach an agreement. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] After testing early in 2021, YouTube removed populace display of dislike counts on videos in November 2021, citing its internal inquiry that found users frequently used the disfavor feature as a form of cyberbullying and brigade. [ 83 ] Almost all users felt that concealment dislikes would make it harder for viewers to recognise clickbait or unhelpful videos, and that other features already existed for creators to limit bullying. Some theorised the removal of dislikes was influenced by YouTube Rewind 2018, which was universally panned and became the most-disliked video on the platform. [ 83 ] Others, meanwhile, said the removal of the disfavor button was to protect politicians and companies. [ 84 ] YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim referred to the update as “ a stupid idea ”, and that the argue behind the change was “ not a estimable one, and not one that will be publicly disclosed. ” [ 85 ] Karim felt that the ability for users on a social platform to identity bad capacity was necessity, saying, “ The work works, and there ‘s a name for it : the wisdom of the crowd. The process breaks when the platform interferes with it. then, the chopine constantly declines. ” [ 86 ] [ 87 ] [ 88 ] Many users requested the dislike count be added back, but as YouTube continued to upload more update videos, it became clear that they would n’t add it rear. [ 89 ]

Features

Video technology

YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video codecs, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol. [ 90 ] MPEG-4 Part 2 stream contained within 3GP containers are besides provided for low bandwidth connections. [ 91 ] By January 2019, YouTube had begun rolling out videos in AV1 format. [ 92 ] In 2021 it was reported that the company was considering requiring AV1 in streaming hardware in order to decrease bandwidth and increase quality. [ 93 ] Video is normally streamed alongside the Opus and AAC audio codecs. [ 91 ] At launch in 2005, viewing YouTube video on a personal calculator required the Adobe Flash Player circuit board to be installed in the browser. [ 94 ] In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the locate that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard. [ 95 ] This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other circuit board to be installed. [ 96 ] On January 27, 2015, YouTube announced that HTML5 would be the default playback method on corroborate browsers. [ 95 ] With the switch to HTML5 video streams using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP ( MPEG-DASH ), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network. [ 97 ] The platform can serve videos at optionally lower resolution levels starting at 144p for smoothening playback in areas and countries with limited Internet speeds, improving compatibility, american samoa well as for the preservation of restrict cellular data plans. The resolution put can be adjusted mechanically based on detected connection rush, ampere well as be set manually. [ 98 ] [ 99 ] From 2008 to 2017, users could add “ annotations ” to their videos—such as pop fly text messages and hyperlinks and which allowed for synergistic videos. By 2019 all annotations had been removed from video recording, breaking some video recording which depended on the sport. YouTube introduced standardize widgets intended to replace annotations in a cross-platform manner, including “ end screens ” ( a customizable range of thumbnails for specified videos displayed near the end of the video ). [ 100 ] [ 101 ] [ 102 ] In 2018, YouTube became an ISNI register, and announced its purpose to begin creating ISNI identifiers to uniquely identify the musicians whose videos it features. [ 103 ]

Uploading

All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users can verify their account, normally through a mobile telephone, to gain the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, vitamin a well as produce live streams. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was potential to upload longer videos, but a 10-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television receiver shows and films. [ 106 ] The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010. [ 107 ] Videos can be at most 256 GB in size or 12 hours, whichever is less. [ 104 ] As of 2021, automatic rifle closed captions using actor’s line recognition engineering when a television is upload is available in 13 languages, and can be machine-translated during playback. [ 108 ]

YouTube also offers manual closed captioning as part of its creator studio.[109] YouTube formerly offered a 'Community Captions' feature, where viewers could write and submit captions for public display upon approval by the video uploader, but this was deprecated in September 2020.[110]

YouTube accepts the most common container formats, including MP4, Matroska, FLV, AVI, WebM, 3GP, MPEG-PS, and the QuickTime File Format. Some intermediate video recording formats ( i.e., chiefly used for master television editing, not for concluding delivery or storage ) are besides accepted, such as ProRes. [ 111 ] YouTube provides recommended encoding settings. [ 112 ] Each video recording is identified by an eleven-character case-sensitive alphanumeric Base64 string in the Uniform Resource Locator ( URL ) which can contain letters, digits, an underscore ( _ ), and a dash ( - ). [ 113 ] In 2018, YouTube added a feature called Premiere which displays a presentment to the user mention when the video recording will be available for the first fourth dimension, like for a live stream but with a prerecord video recording. When the schedule time arrives, the video recording is aired as a live broadcast with a two-minute countdown. optionally, a premier can be initiated immediately. [ 114 ]

quality and formats

YouTube primitively offered videos at lone one choice level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec ( a variant of H.263 ), [ 115 ] [ 116 ] with infectious mononucleosis MP3 audio. [ 117 ] In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on fluid phones. [ 118 ] In March 2008, a high-quality modality was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels. [ 119 ] In December 2008, 720p HD digest was added. At the time of the 720p launching, the YouTube actor was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9. [ 120 ] With this raw feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD hold was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a crop of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolving power of up to 4096×3072 pixels. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] In July 2010, patronize for 4K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 3840 × 2160 pixels. [ 123 ] In June 2015, documentation for 8K solution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels. [ 124 ] In November 2016, subscribe for HDR video recording was added which can be encoded with hybrid log–gamma ( HLG ) or perceptual quantizer ( PQ ). [ 125 ] HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 tinge space. [ 126 ] In June 2014, YouTube began to deploy support for high-frame-rate video up to 60 frames per second ( as opposed to 30 before ), becoming available for user uploads in October. YouTube stated that this would enhance “ motion-intensive ” videos, such as video crippled footage. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ] [ 130 ] YouTube videos are available in a crop of quality levels. Viewers only indirectly influence the television quality. Users choose between “ Auto ”, which adjusts resolving power based on the internet connection, “ high word picture Quality ” which will prioritize playing high-quality video recording, “ Data saver ” which will sacrifice television quality in favor of moo data use, and “ Advanced ” which lets the exploiter choose a stream resoluteness. [ 131 ] It is not possible for the spectator to directly choose a higher bitrate ( quality ) for any selected resolution. Since 2009, viewers have had the ability watch 3D videos. [ 132 ] In 2015, the ship’s company began natively supporting 360-degree video recording. Since April 2016, allowed live streaming 360° video, and both normal and 360° video recording at up to 1440p, and since November 2016 both at at up to 4K ( 2160p ) resolution. [ 133 ] [ 134 ] [ 135 ] Citing the limited number of users who watched more than 90-degrees, the company began supporting an alternative stereoscopic video recording format known as VR180 which it said was easier to produce. [ 136 ] The ship’s company now allows users to watch any video using virtual reality headsets. [ 137 ] In response to increased viewership during the COVID-19 pandemic, the ship’s company temporarily downgraded the quality of its television. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] The company developed its own chip, called Argos, to help with encoding higher resolution videos in 2021. [ 140 ]

Live stream

YouTube carried out early on experiments with exist streaming, including a concert by U2 in 2009, and a question-and-answer seance with US President Barack Obama in February 2010. [ 141 ] These tests had relied on engineering from 3rd-party partners, but in September 2010, YouTube began testing its own live pour infrastructure. [ 142 ] In April 2011, YouTube announced the rollout of YouTube Live. The creation of exist pour was initially limited to blue-ribbon partners. [ 143 ] It was used for real-time broadcasting of events such as the 2012 Olympics in London. [ 144 ] In October 2012, more than 8 million people watch Felix Baumgartner ‘s chute from the edge of space as a bouncy flow on YouTube. [ 145 ] In May 2013, creation of live stream was opened to control users with at least 1,000 subscribers ; in August of that class the issue was reduced to 100 subscribers, [ 146 ] and in December the limit was removed. [ 147 ] In February 2017, live streaming was introduced to the official YouTube mobile app. populate streaming via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10,000 subscribers, [ 148 ] but as of mid-2017 it has been reduced to 100 subscribers. [ 149 ] Live streams subscribe HDR, can be up to 4K resolution at 60 federal protective service, and besides support 360° television. [ 134 ] [ 150 ]

User features

Community

On September 13, 2016, YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a sociable media -based feature that allows users to post text, images ( including GIFs ), alive videos and others in a separate “ Community ” tab on their channel. [ 151 ] Prior to the handout, several creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find utilitarian ; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3. [ 152 ] [ non-primary source needed ] After the feature has been officially released, the community post feature gets activated mechanically for every channel that passes a specific doorsill of subscriber counts or already has more subscribers. This threshold was lowered over fourth dimension [ when? ], from 10,000 subscribers to 1500 subscribers, to 1000 subscribers, [ 153 ] [ non-primary source needed ] to 500 subscribers. [ 154 ] Channels that the community tab key becomes enabled for, get their transmit discussions ( the diagnose before March 2013 “ One channel layout ” redesign finalization : “ channel comments ” ) permanently erased, rather of co-existing or migrate. [ 155 ] [ non-primary source needed ]

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their kind and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling “ community and collaboration on a scale never seen before ”, and added that YouTube “ harnesses the stupidity of push angstrom well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanness barely for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hate ”. [ 156 ] The Guardian in 2009 described users ‘ comments on YouTube as : [ 157 ]

Juvenile, aggressive, misspelt, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detail description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile argue and unashamed ignorance—with the episodic collapse of wag shining through .

The Daily Telegraph commented in September 2008, that YouTube was “ ill-famed ” for “ some of the most confrontational and ungrammatical gloss exchanges on the internet ”, and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, “ a newfangled musical composition of software that blocks ill-mannered and illiterate posts ”. [ 158 ] The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear “ offense, unintelligent and crass ” to the “ huge majority ” of the people is barely unmanageable. [ 159 ] Google subsequently implemented a comment system oriented on Google+ on November 6, 2013, that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account to comment on videos. The submit motivation for the variety was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone. [ 160 ] The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with pervert. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] In reaction, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the interview “ why the sleep together do I need a google+ account to comment on a video ? ” on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change. [ 163 ] The official YouTube announcement [ 164 ] received 20,097 “ thumbs down ” votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days. [ 165 ] Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that “ Google+ is nowhere approach as popular a social media network like Facebook, but it ‘s basically being forced upon millions of YouTube users who do n’t want to lose their ability to comment on videos ” and added that “ Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with the outshout against the new gloss system ”. In the lapp article Melvin goes on to say : [ 166 ]

possibly drug user complaints are justified, but the theme of revamping the previous organization is n’t thus bad. think of the petroleum, misogynous and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible easing. Is n’t any undertake to curb unidentified libelers worth a shoot ? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity .

late, on July 27, 2015, Google announced in a web log position that it would be removing the prerequisite to sign up to a Google+ account to post comments to YouTube. [ 167 ] then on November 3, 2016, YouTube announced a test dodge which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments. [ 168 ] Creators may besides choose to keep or delete comments with links or hashtags in order to combat spam. They can besides allow other users to moderate their comments. [ 169 ] In December 2020, it was reported that YouTube would launch a new feature that will warn users who post a comment that “ may be nauseating to others. ” [ 170 ] [ 171 ]

content handiness

YouTube offers users the ability to view its video recording on web pages outside their web site. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a part of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web. [ 172 ] This functionality is frequently used to embed YouTube videos in social network pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video hash out, inspired by, or related to another user ‘s television can make a “ video response ”. The football team character Youtube video recording identifier ( 64 possible characters used in each position ), allows for a theoretical maximum of 6411 or around 73.8 quintillion ( 73.8 billion billion ) singular ids. YouTube announced that it would remove video recording responses for being an underused feature on August 27, 2013. [ 173 ] Embedding, rate, commenting and reception mailing can be disabled by the video recording owner. [ 174 ] YouTube does not normally offer a download link for its video, and intends for them to be viewed through its web site interface. [ 175 ] A belittled number of videos can be downloaded as MP4 files. [ 176 ] Numerous third-party world wide web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos. [ 177 ] In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video recording downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout. [ 178 ] In June 2012, Google sent cease and abstain letters threaten legal action against several websites offering on-line download and conversion of YouTube videos. [ 179 ] In reception, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its web site. [ 180 ] Users retain copyright of their own work under the default Standard YouTube License, [ 181 ] but have the choice to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose. Since July 2012, it has been possible to select a creative Commons attribution license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material. [ 182 ]

Platforms

Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube television, either within an application or through an optimize web site. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video. [ 183 ] not all of YouTube ‘s videos are available on the mobile version of the site. [ 184 ] Since June 2007, YouTube ‘s videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This compulsory YouTube ‘s content to be transcoded into Apple ‘s prefer video recording standard, H.264, a process that took respective months. YouTube television can be viewed on devices including Apple television receiver, iPod Touch and the iPhone. [ 185 ] The mobile translation of the site was relaunched based on HTML5 in July 2010, avoiding the motivation to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. [ 186 ] The mobile version is besides available as an app for the Android chopine. [ 187 ] [ 188 ] In September 2012, YouTube launched its first gear app for the iPhone, following the decisiveness to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operate arrangement. [ 189 ] According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35 % of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third-most used app. [ 190 ] A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos. [ 191 ] In January 2009, YouTube launched “ YouTube for television receiver ”, a interpretation of the web site tailored for set-top boxes and early TV-based media devices with vane browsers, initially allowing its video recording to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii television crippled consoles. [ 192 ] [ 193 ] During the month of June that like class, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplify interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen. [ 194 ] YouTube is besides available as an app on Xbox Live. [ 195 ] On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube video recording from the Wii channel. [ 196 ] An app was available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, but was discontinued in August 2019. [ 197 ] Videos can besides be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5. [ 198 ] Google made YouTube available on the Roku actor on December 17, 2013, [ 199 ] and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4. [ 200 ] YouTube launched as a downloadable app for the Nintendo Switch in November 2018. [ 201 ]

International and localization of function

On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt appeared in Paris to launch the newly localization organization. [ 202 ] The interface of the web site is available with localize versions in 104 countries, one territory ( Hong Kong ) and a cosmopolitan version. [ 203 ]
The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen based on the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message “ This video is not available in your nation ” may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate contentedness. [ 250 ] The interface of the YouTube web site is available in 76 terminology versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local distribution channel versions. Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the post of video deemed diss to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the sphere youtube.com.tr. The local interpretation is subject to the subject regulations found in turkish police. [ 253 ] In March 2009, a challenge between YouTube and the british royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major commemorate companies occurred after failure to reach an agreement on a license deal. The quarrel was resolved in September 2009. [ 254 ] In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music television for users in Germany. [ 255 ]

Videos

In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the web site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television. [ 256 ] In 2017, viewers on modal watched YouTube on mobile devices for more than an hour every day. [ 257 ] In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the scene counts of Universal and Sony music video recording on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted ascribable to a trespass of the site ‘s terms of overhaul, which ban the use of automatize processes to inflate horizon counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube. [ 258 ] [ 259 ] On August 5, 2015, YouTube patched the once ill-famed behavior which caused a video ‘s watch count to freeze at “ 301 ” ( later “ 301+ ” ) until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud. [ 260 ] YouTube position counts once again updated in substantial fourth dimension. [ 261 ] Since September 2019, subscriber counts are abbreviated. only three leading digits of channels ‘ subscriber counts are indicate publicly, compromising the function of third-party real-time indicators such as that of Social Blade. claim counts remain available to channel operators inside YouTube Studio. [ 262 ] On November 11, 2021, after testing out this change in March 2021, YouTube announced it would start hiding dislike counts on videos, making them invisible to viewers. The company stated the decision was in reaction to experiments which confirmed that smaller YouTube creators were more likely to be targeted in dislike brigade and harassment. Creators will still be able to see the number of likes and dislikes in the YouTube Studio dashboard cock, according to YouTube. [ 263 ] [ 264 ] [ 265 ]

Copyright issues

YouTube has faced numerous challenges and criticisms in its attempts to deal with copyright, including the web site ‘s inaugural viral television, Lazy Sunday, which had to be taken down, due to copyright concerns. [ 30 ] At the time of uploading a television, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. [ 266 ] Despite this advice, many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material stay on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted on-line, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notification pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright violation results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright violation against a exploiter account will result in the score and all of its upload video being deleted. [ 267 ] [ 268 ] From 2007 to 2009 organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done excessively fiddling to prevent the upload of copyrighted material. [ 269 ] [ 270 ] [ 271 ] In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders can not order the removal of an on-line file without first determining whether the post reflected carnival practice of the material. [ 272 ] YouTube ‘s owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal monetary value in blue-ribbon cases where they believe fair use defenses apply. [ 273 ] In the 2011 event of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, master singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright put-down notices on YouTube. [ 274 ] He asserted seven causes of legal action, and four were ruled in Smith ‘s prefer. [ 275 ] In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted substantial posted by its users. [ 276 ] On November 1, 2016, the challenge with GEMA was resolved, with Google message ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with contentedness protected by GEMA. [ 277 ] In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents message blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. [ 278 ] [ 279 ] As part of YouTube Music, Universal and YouTube signed an agreement in 2017, which was followed by separate agreements other major labels, which gave the party the right to advertise gross when its music was played on YouTube. [ 280 ] By 2019, creators were having video taken down or demonetized when Content ID identified even abruptly segments of copyrighted music within a much longer video, with different levels of enforcement depending on the record pronounce. [ 281 ] Experts noted that some of these clips said qualified for bonny manipulation. [ 281 ]

Content ID

In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a arrangement for automatic detection of upload videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from message that it did not have the right field to distribute. [ 282 ] The organization, which was initially called “ Video Identification ” [ 283 ] [ 284 ] and former became known as Content ID, [ 285 ] creates an ID File for copyrighted sound recording and television material, and stores it in a database. When a video is upload, it is checked against the database, and flags the video recording as a copyright irreverence if a match is found. [ 286 ] When this occurs, the capacity owner has the option of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the television. By 2010, YouTube had “ already invested tens of millions of dollars in this engineering ”. [ 284 ] In 2011, YouTube described Content ID as “ very accurate in finding uploads that look like to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File ”. [ 286 ] By 2012, Content ID accounted for over a third base of the monetize views on YouTube. [ 287 ] An independent test in 2009 upload multiple versions of the lapp sung to YouTube and concluded that while the system was “ amazingly resilient ” in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of video, it was not infallible. [ 288 ] The use of Content ID to remove material mechanically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a homo for bazaar manipulation. [ 289 ] If a YouTube user disagrees with a decisiveness by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision. [ 290 ] Before 2016, videos were not monetized until the dispute was resolved. Since April 2016, videos continue to be monetized while the challenge is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute. [ 291 ] Should the uploader want to monetize the video recording again, they may remove the challenge audio in the “ Video Manager ”. [ 292 ] YouTube has cited the potency of Content ID as one of the reasons why the locate ‘s rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of inexhaustible length. [ 293 ]

moderation and dysphemistic contented

YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the web site ‘s features. The upload of videos containing aspersion, pornography, and material encourage criminal lead is forbidden by YouTube ‘s “ Community Guidelines ”. [ 294 ] Generally prohibited material includes sexually denotative capacity, video of animal abuse, shock videos, capacity uploaded without the copyright holder ‘s consent, hate language, spam, and marauding demeanor. [ 294 ] YouTube relies on its users to flag the contented of video recording as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flag video to determine whether it violates the locate ‘s guidelines. [ 294 ] Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, [ 295 ] its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, [ 296 ] hosting video apparently targeting children but containing violent or sexually suggestive content involving democratic characters, [ 297 ] video of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, [ 298 ] and fluctuating policies on the types of capacity that is eligible to be monetized with advertising. [ 295 ] YouTube contracts companies to hire content moderators, who view contentedness flagged as potentially violating YouTube ‘s content policies and determines if they should be removed. In September 2020, a class-action suit was filed by a former contentedness moderator who reported developing post-traumatic try disorder ( PTSD ) after an 18-month period on the job. The erstwhile content moderator said that she was regularly made to exceed YouTube ‘s stated limited of four hours per day of viewing graphic contentedness. The lawsuit alleges that YouTube ‘s contractors gave little to no discipline or documentation for its moderator ‘s mental health, made prospective employees sign NDAs before showing them any examples of subject they would see while reviewing, and censored all mention of injury from its internal forums. It besides purports that requests for extremely graphic content to be blurred, reduced in size or made monochrome, per recommendations from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, were rejected by YouTube as not a senior high school precedence for the ship’s company. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] [ 301 ] To limit the spread of misinformation and fake news via YouTube, it has rolled out a comprehensive policy regarding how to planned to deal with technically manipulated video recording. [ 302 ] controversial contented has included corporeal relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough catastrophe, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989. [ 303 ] [ 304 ] In July 2008, the acculturation and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was “ unimpressed ” with YouTube ‘s system for policing its video recording, and argued that “ proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated message ”. YouTube responded by state :

We have nonindulgent rules on what ‘s allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 recapitulation team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our residential district on the rules and include a lead connection from every YouTube page to make this process a easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of capacity uploaded on our web site, we think this is by army for the liberation of rwanda the most effective way to make sure that the bantam minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. [ 305 ] ( July 2008 )

In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its web site videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki. [ 306 ] YouTube pulled some of the video recording in November 2010, stating they violated the site ‘s guidelines. [ 307 ] In December 2010, YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism contentedness. [ 308 ] In 2018, YouTube introduced a system that would mechanically add data boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other bogus news, filling the infobox with content from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia as a mean to inform users to minimize misinformation generation without impacting exemption of manner of speaking. [ 309 ] In the wake of the Notre-Dame de Paris fuel on April 15, 2019, several user-uploaded videos of the landmark fire were flagged by YouTube ‘ system mechanically with an Encyclopedia Britannica article on the false conspiracy theories around the September 11 attacks. several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithm had misidentified the displace television and added the information stop mechanically, and were taking steps to remedy this. [ 310 ] Five lead message creators whose channels were based on LGBTQ+ materials filed a union lawsuit against YouTube in August 2019, alleging that YouTube ‘s algorithm deviate discovery off from their channels, impacting their tax income. The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithm discourage contented with words like “ lesbian ” or “ homosexual ”, which would be predominant in their channels ‘ content, and because of YouTube ‘s near-monopolization of on-line video services, they are abusing that position. [ 311 ]

YouTube as a creature to promote conspiracy theories and reactionary content

YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives capital bulge to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe hold forth. [ 312 ] [ 313 ] [ 314 ] According to an investigation by The Wall Street Journal, “ YouTube ‘s recommendations frequently lead users to channels that feature of speech conspiracy theories, partisan viewpoints and misleading videos, even when those users have n’t shown concern in such content. When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints. ” [ 312 ] [ 315 ] When users search for political or scientific terms, YouTube ‘s search algorithm often contribute prominence to hoaxes and conspiracy theories. [ 314 ] [ 316 ] After YouTube drew controversy for giving top charge to videos promoting falsehoods and conspiracy when people made breaking-news queries during the 2017 Las Vegas shoot, YouTube changed its algorithm to give greater prominence to mainstream media sources. [ 312 ] [ 317 ] [ 318 ] [ 319 ] In 2018, it was reported that YouTube was again promoting periphery capacity about breaking news, giving great prominence to conspiracy videos about Anthony Bourdain ‘s death. [ 320 ] In 2017, it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites, and hate preachers who received ad payouts. [ 321 ] After firms started to stop advertise on YouTube in the wake up of this report, YouTube apologized and said that it would give firms greater control over where ads got placed. [ 321 ] Alex Jones, known for rightist conspiracy theories, had built a massive hearing on YouTube. [ 322 ] YouTube drew criticism in 2018 when it removed a television from Media Matters compiling dysphemistic statements made by Jones, stating that it violated its policies on “ harassment and bullying ”. [ 323 ] On August 6, 2018, however, YouTube removed Alex Jones ‘ YouTube page following a content violation. [ 324 ]

University of North Carolina professor Zeynep Tufekci has referred to YouTube as “ The Great Radicalizer ”, saying “ YouTube may be one of the most brawny radicalize instruments of the twenty-first hundred. ” [ 325 ] Jonathan Albright of the Tow Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University described YouTube as a “ conspiracy ecosystem ”. [ 314 ] [ 326 ] In January 2019, YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy starting in the United States intended to stop recommending videos containing “ content that could misinform users in harmful ways. ” YouTube gave flat earth theories, miracle cures, and 9/11 trutherism as examples. [ 327 ] Efforts within YouTube mastermind to stop recommending boundary line extremist videos falling good short of forbid hate manner of speaking, and track their popularity were in the first place rejected because they could interfere with viewer engagement. [ 328 ] In belated 2019, the site began implementing measures directed towards “ raising authoritative content and reducing boundary line content and harmful misinformation. ” [ 329 ] In a July 2019 learn based on ten-spot YouTube searches using the Tor Browser related to climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views contrary to the scientific consensus on climate change. [ 330 ] A 2019 BBC investigation of YouTube searches in ten different languages found that YouTube ‘s algorithm promoted health misinformation, including juke cancer cures. [ 331 ] In Brazil, YouTube has been linked to pushing pseudoscientific misinformation on health matters, american samoa well as elevated reactionary fringe discussion and conspiracy theories. [ 332 ] In the Philippines, numerous channels such as “ Showbiz Fanaticz, ” “ Robin Sweet Showbiz, ” and “ PH BREAKING NEWS, ” each with at least 100,000 subscribers, have been proven to be spreading misinformation related to political figures ahead of the 2022 Philippine elections. [ 333 ]

Use among white supremacists

Before 2019, YouTube has taken steps to remove specific videos or channels related to supremacist content that had violated its satisfactory practice policies but differently did not have site-wide policies against hate speech. [ 334 ] In the wake of the March 2019 Christchurch mosque attacks, YouTube and other sites like Facebook and Twitter that allowed user-submitted content drew criticism for doing little to moderate and control the spread of hate manner of speaking, which was considered to be a factor in the rationale for the attacks. [ 335 ] [ 336 ] These platforms were pressured to remove such content, but in an interview with The New York Times, YouTube ‘s foreman merchandise officer Neal Mohan said that unlike content such as ISIS videos which take a finical format and therefore easy to detect through computer-aided algorithm, cosmopolitan hate manner of speaking was more difficult to recognize and handle, and thus could not readily take action to remove without human interaction. [ 337 ] YouTube joined an inaugural led by France and New Zealand with early countries and technical school companies in May 2019 to develop tools to be used to block on-line hate speech and to develop regulations, to be implemented at the home degree, to be levied against engineering firms that failed to take steps to remove such speech, though the United States declined to participate. [ 338 ] [ 339 ] Subsequently, on June 5, 2019, YouTube announced a major change to its terms of military service, “ specifically prohibiting videos alleging that a group is superscript in order to justify discrimination, segregation or exception based on qualities like senesce, sex, rush, caste, religion, intimate orientation or veteran status. ” YouTube identified specific examples of such videos as those that “ promote or glorify Nazi political orientation, which is inherently prejudiced ”. YouTube farther stated it would “ remove content denying that well-documented fierce events, like the Holocaust or the shoot at Sandy Hook Elementary, took identify. ” [ 334 ] [ 340 ] In June 2020, YouTube banned several channels associated with white domination, including those of Stefan Molyneux, David Duke, and Richard B. Spencer, asserting these channels violated their policies on hate lecture. The ban occurred the lapp day that Reddit announced the banish on several hate speech sub-forums including r/The_Donald. [ 341 ]

Handling of COVID-19 pandemic and other misinformation

Following the dissemination via YouTube of misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic that 5G communications technology was responsible for the gap of coronavirus disease 2019 which led to multiple 5G towers in the United Kingdom being attacked by arsonists, YouTube removed all such videos linking 5G and the coronavirus in this manner. [ 342 ] YouTube extended this policy in September 2021 to cover videos disseminating misinformation related to any vaccine, including those long approved against measles or Hepatitis B, that had received approval from local health authorities or the World Health Organization. [ 343 ] [ 344 ] The platform removed the accounts of anti-vaccine campaigners such as Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Joseph Mercola at this time. [ 344 ] Two accounts linked to RT Deutsch, the german channel of the Russian RT net were removed equally well for breaching YouTube ‘s policies. [ 343 ] Google and YouTube implemented policies in October 2021 to deny monetization or gross to advertisers or content creators that promoted climate switch denial, which “ includes capacity referring to climate switch as a fraud or a scam, claims denying that long-run trends show the global climate is warming, and claims denying that greenhouse flatulence emissions or human natural process contribute to climate transfer. ” [ 345 ] Child guard and wellbeing Leading into 2017, there was a significant increase in the number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family ‘s activities, and former content creators moving away from subject that frequently was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly material. In 2017, YouTube reported that prison term watching class vloggers had increased by 90 %. [ 346 ] [ 347 ] however, with the addition in video recording have children, the site began to face respective controversies related to child safety. During Q2 2017, the owners of popular channel FamilyOFive, which featured themselves playing “ pranks ” on their children, were accused of child pervert. Their videos were finally deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody. [ 348 ] [ 349 ] [ 350 ] [ 351 ] A like encase happened in 2019 when the owners of the channel Fantastic Adventures was accused of abusing her assume children. Her video would late be deleted. [ 352 ] later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring democratic characters in violent, sexual or differently interrupt situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views. The term “ Elsagate “ was coined on the Internet and then used by assorted news outlets to refer to this controversy. [ 353 ] [ 354 ] [ 355 ] [ 356 ] On November 11, 2017, YouTube announced it was strengthening site security to protect children from unsuitable content. late that month, the company started to mass edit videos and channels that made improper use of family-friendly characters. As part of a broader refer regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions besides targeted channels that showed children taking separate in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the steering of adults. Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks, a channel with over 8.5 million subscribers, that featured a father and his two daughters in curious and upset situations. [ 357 ] [ 358 ] [ 359 ] [ 360 ] [ 361 ] According to analytics specialist SocialBlade, it earned up to £8.7 million annually anterior to its deletion. [ 362 ] even for subject that appears to be aimed at children and appears to contain lone child-friendly content, YouTube ‘s system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos. These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children ‘s subject which, after becoming popular, then on the spur of the moment include inappropriate content masked as children ‘s content. [ 363 ] Alternative, some of the most-watched children ‘s programming on YouTube comes from channels that have no identifiable owners, raising concerns of purpose and determination. One channel that had been of concern was “ Cocomelon “ which provided numerous mass-produced animated video recording aimed at children. Up through 2019, it had drawn up to US $ 10 million a month in ad gross and was one of the largest kid-friendly channels on YouTube before 2020. ownership of Cocomelon was indecipherable outside of its ties to “ Treasure Studio ”, itself an unknown entity, raising questions as to the impart ‘s purpose, [ 363 ] [ 364 ] [ 365 ] but Bloomberg News had been able to confirm and interview the belittled team of american owners in February 2020 regarding “ Cocomelon ”, who stated their goal for the channel was to plainly entertain children, wanting to keep to themselves to avoid care from outside investors. [ 366 ] The anonymity of such channel raise concerns because of the miss of cognition of what purpose they are trying to serve. [ 367 ] The difficulty to identify who operates these channels “ adds to the miss of accountability ”, according to Josh Golin of the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, and educational adviser Renée Chernow-O’Leary found the videos were designed to entertain with no captive to educate, all leading to both critics and parents to be concerned for their children becoming excessively enraptured by the content from these channels. [ 363 ] Content creators that seriously make kid-friendly videos have found it unmanageable to compete with larger channels like ChuChu television, unable to produce contented at the same rate as these big channels, and lack the same means of being promoted through YouTube ‘s recommendation algorithm that the larger animize distribution channel networks have shared. [ 367 ] In January 2019, YouTube officially banned videos containing “ challenges that encourage acts that have an implicit in gamble of severe physical damage ” ( such as, for case, the Tide Pod Challenge ) and videos featuring pranks that “ make victims believe they ‘re in physical danger ” or cause aroused distress in children. [ 368 ]

Sexualization of children and pedophilia

besides in November 2017, it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children—often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing impeccant content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics—were attracting comments from pedophiles [ 369 ] [ 370 ] with predators finding the television through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian. [ 370 ] early child-centric videos primitively uploaded to YouTube began propagating on the dark web, and uploaded or embedded onto forums known to be used by pedophiles. [ 371 ] As a consequence of the controversy, which added to the concern about “ Elsagate ”, several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube. [ 356 ] [ 372 ] In December 2018, The Times found more than 100 grooming cases in which children were manipulated into sexually implicit behavior ( such as taking off clothes, adopting overtly sexual poses and touching early children inappropriately ) by strangers. [ 373 ] After a reporter flagged the television in interrogate, half of them were removed, and the rest were removed after The Times contacted YouTube ‘s PR department. [ 373 ] In February 2019, YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a “ wormhole ” that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this character of video recording content, and make all of that drug user ‘s recommend capacity have only these types of video. Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions or otherwise making indecent remarks. In some cases, other users had re-uploaded the video recording in unlisted form but with incoming links from early videos, and then monetized these, propagating this net. [ 374 ] In the wake up of the controversy, the service reported that they had deleted over 400 channels and tens of millions of comments, and reported the offending users to law enforcement and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. A spokesperson explained that “ any content—including comments—that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have absolved policies prohibiting this on YouTube. There ‘s more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch mistreat more cursorily. ” [ 375 ] [ 376 ] Despite these measures, AT & T, Disney, Dr. Oetker, Epic Games, and Nestlé all pulled their ad from YouTube. [ 374 ] [ 377 ] subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block ad on the types of video that have drawn these predaceous comments. The service explained that this was a irregular measure while they explore early methods to eliminate the problem. [ 378 ] YouTube besides began to flag channels that predominantly feature children, and preemptively disable their comments sections. “ Trusted partners ” can request that comments be re-enabled, but the channel will then become creditworthy for moderating comments. These actions chiefly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected deoxyadenosine monophosphate well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as intimate, such as gymnastics. YouTube stated it was besides working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the style of child predators. [ 379 ] [ 380 ] A related attack to algorithmically flag videos containing references to the string “ CP ” ( an abbreviation of child pornography ) resulted in some big false positives involving unrelated topics using the lapp abbreviation, including videos related to the mobile video game Pokémon Go ( which uses “ CP ” as an abbreviation of the statistic “ Combat Power ” ), and Club Penguin. YouTube apologized for the errors and reinstated the moved television. [ 381 ] Separately, on-line trolls have attempted to have videos flagged for takedown or removal by commenting with statements exchangeable to what the child predators had said ; this action became an issue during the PewDiePie volt T-Series competition in early 2019. YouTube stated they do not take carry through on any video recording with these comments but those that they have flagged that are probably to draw child marauder bodily process. [ 382 ] In June 2019, The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended apparently innocent videos of children. [ 383 ] As a result, Senator Josh Hawley stated plans to introduce federal legislation that would ban YouTube and other television sharing sites from including videos that predominantly feature minors as “ recommend ” video, excluding those that were “ professionally produced ”, such as videos of telecast endowment shows. [ 384 ] YouTube has suggested potential plans to remove all videos featuring children from the main YouTube site and transferring them to the YouTube Kids site where they would have stronger controls over the recommendation organization, equally well as other major changes on the chief YouTube site to the recommended feature and autoplay system. [ 385 ]

April Fools gags

YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every class from 2008 to 2016. In 2008, all links to videos on the independent page were redirected to Rick Astley ‘s music video “ Never Gon na Give You Up “, a antic known as “ rickrolling “. [ 386 ] [ 387 ] The adjacent year, when clicking on a video on the chief page, the whole page turned top down, which YouTube claimed was a “ raw layout ”. [ 388 ] In 2010, YouTube temporarily released a “ TEXTp ” mode which rendered video imagination into ASCII art letters “ in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $ 1 per second. ” [ 389 ] The following class, the web site celebrated its “ hundredth anniversary ” with a image of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat. [ 390 ] In 2012, clicking on the picture of a DVD next to the locate logo led to a television about a purport choice to order every YouTube video for family delivery on DVD. [ 391 ] In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim in an upload video recording that the video-sharing web site was launched as a contest which had ultimately come to an end, and would shut down for ten years before being re-launched in 2023, featuring only the winning video recording. The video starred several YouTube celebrities, including Antoine Dodson. A video recording of two presenters announcing the appoint video streamed live for 12 hours. [ 392 ] [ 393 ] In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the universe of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming trends, such as “ Clocking ”, “ Kissing Dad ”, and “ Glub Glub Water Dance ”. [ 394 ] The following year, YouTube added a music button to the television measure that played samples from “ Sandstorm “ by Darude. [ 395 ] In 2016, YouTube introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mood with Snoop Dogg. [ 396 ]

Services

YouTube Community

In September 2016, YouTube announced the launch of its own social network have named YouTube Community. [ 397 ] only users with over 500 subscribers have access to this. Community posts can include images, GIFs, text and television . Logo of YouTube Go YouTube Go is an android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets. It is clear-cut from the company ‘s chief Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users. It besides allows users to preview video, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth, and offers more options for mobile data manipulate and video recording resolution. [ 398 ] YouTube announced the project in September 2016 at an event in India. [ 399 ] It was launched in India in February 2017, and expanded in November 2017 to 14 other countries, including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Kenya, and South Africa. [ 400 ] [ 401 ] It was rolled out in 130 countries global, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Iraq on February 1, 2018. The app is available to around 60 % of the worldly concern ‘s population. [ 402 ] [ 403 ]

YouTube Kids

YouTube Kids is an american children ‘s video app developed by YouTube, a subordinate of Google. The app was developed in response to parental and government scrutiny on the contentedness available to children. The app provides a adaptation of the service-oriented towards children, with curated selections of contented, parental control features, and percolate of video recording deemed inappropriate view for children aged under 13, 8 or 5 depending on the age grouping choose. First released on February 15, 2015 as an Android and io mobile app, the app has since been released for LG, Samsung, and Sony smart TVs, american samoa good as for Android television. On May 27, 2020, it became available on Apple television receiver. As of September 2019, the app is available in 69 countries, including Hong Kong and Macau, and one state. YouTube launched a web-based version of YouTube Kids on August 30, 2019 .

YouTube Movies

YouTube Movies is a service by YouTube that shows movies via its web site. Many of the movies are detached to view, with ads. [ 404 ]

YouTube Music

On September 28, 2016, YouTube named Lyor Cohen, the co-founder of 300 Entertainment and early Warner Music Group executive, the Global Head of Music. [ 405 ] In early 2018, Cohen began hinting at the possible establish of YouTube ‘s new subscription music streaming serve, a platform that would compete with early services such as Spotify and Apple Music. [ 406 ] On May 22, 2018, the music streaming chopine named “ YouTube Music ” was launched. [ 407 ] [ 408 ]

YouTube bounty

YouTube Premium ( once YouTube Red ) is YouTube ‘s bounty subscription service. It offers advertising-free stream, access to original program, and background and offline television playback on mobile devices. [ 409 ] YouTube Premium was primitively announced on November 12, 2014 as “ Music Key ”, a subscription music streaming servicing, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music “ All Access ” avail. [ 410 ] [ 411 ] [ 412 ] On October 28, 2015, the service was relaunched as YouTube Red, offering ad-free stream of all videos and access to single original contentedness. [ 413 ] [ 414 ] [ 415 ] As of November 2016, the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a farther million on a free-trial basis. [ 416 ] As of June 2017, the first season of YouTube Originals had gotten 250 million views in sum. [ 417 ]

YouTube Shorts

In September 2020, YouTube announced that it would be launching a beta version of a raw platform of 15-second videos, like to TikTok, called YouTube Shorts. [ 418 ] [ 419 ] The platform was first tested in India but as of March 2021 has expanded to other countries including the United States with videos now able to be up to 1 minute hanker. [ 420 ] The platform is not a standalone app, but is integrated into the chief YouTube app. Like TikTok, it gives users access to built-in creative tools, including the hypothesis of adding license music to their videos. [ 421 ] The platform had its global beta launch in July 2021. [ 422 ]

YouTube Stories

In 2018, YouTube started testing a new feature of speech initially called “ YouTube Reels ”. [ 423 ] The sport is about identical to Instagram Stories and Snapchat Stories. YouTube belated renamed the feature of speech “ YouTube Stories ”. It is lone available to creators who have more than 10,000 subscribers and can merely be posted/seen in the YouTube mobile app. [ 424 ]

TestTube

experimental features of YouTube can be accessed in an area of the web site named TestTube. [ 425 ] [ 426 ] For exercise, in October 2009, a comment search sport accessible under /comment_search was implemented as separate of this program. The feature was removed former. [ 427 ] late the same year, YouTube Feather was introduced as a whippersnapper alternative web site for countries with limited internet speeds. [ 428 ]

YouTube television

On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube Space Los Angeles, YouTube announced YouTube TV, an extraordinary MVPD -style subscription service that would be available for United States customers at a price of US $ 35 per calendar month. initially launching in five major markets ( New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco ) on April 5, 2017, [ 429 ] [ 430 ] the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks ( ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox and NBC ), arsenic well as approximately 40 cable television channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, twenty-first Century Fox, NBCUniversal and Turner Broadcasting System ( including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, Cartoon Network, e !, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN ). Subscribers can besides receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra tip, and can access YouTube Premium original subject. [ 431 ] [ 432 ]

Social impact

Both private individuals [ 433 ] and large production corporations [ 434 ] have used YouTube to grow audiences. Indie creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or feat, while mass retail and radio promotion proved debatable. [ 433 ] Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the web site at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings and perceived hearing sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television. [ 434 ] While YouTube ‘s revenue-sharing “ Partner Program ” made it possible to earn a hearty live as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $ 100,000 per annum [ 435 ] and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $ 2.5 million to $ 12 million [ 436 ] —in 2012 CMU clientele editor characterized YouTube as “ a free-to-use … promotional chopine for the music labels. ” [ 437 ] In 2013 Forbes ‘ Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists ‘ work must not lone be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media. [ 438 ] Videos of the 2.5 % of artists categorized as “ mega ”, “ mainstream ” and “ mid-sized ” received 90.3 % of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo in that year. [ 439 ] By early 2013, Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and refer genre charts. [ 440 ]
Jordan Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards accepting for YouTube Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online video convey has been “ calibrate by millions of years of evolution, ” TED curator Chris Anderson referred to respective YouTube contributors and asserted that “ what Gutenberg did for writing, on-line video can now do for face-to-face communication. ” [ 441 ] Anderson asserted that it is not far-fetched to say that on-line television will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch “ the biggest learn cycle in human history. ” [ 441 ] In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for fall through Salman Khan ‘s cousin into what Forbes’ Michael Noer called “ the largest school in the worldly concern, ” with technology poised to disrupt how people learn. [ 442 ] YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award, [ 443 ] the web site being described as a Speakers ‘ Corner that “ both embodies and promotes majority rule. ” [ 444 ] The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube ‘s most subscribe channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white. [ 445 ] A Pew Research Center study reported the development of “ ocular journalism, ” in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation. [ 446 ] The discipline besides concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news. [ 447 ] YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates ( 2007 ) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube television, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape. [ 448 ] Describing the arabian give ( 2010–2012 ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an militant ‘s compendious description that organizing the political unrest involved using “ Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the universe. ” [ 449 ] In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the “ Kony 2012 “ video was posted to YouTube, with resolving power co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video “ will do more to lead to ( Kony ‘s ) death than all other action combined. ” [ 450 ]
[451][452] Leading YouTube message creators met at the White House with U.S. President Obama to discuss how politics could better connect with the “ YouTube coevals. ” conversely, YouTube has besides allowed government to more well engage with citizens, the White House ‘s official YouTube groove being the seventh top news program administration manufacturer on YouTube in 2012 [ 453 ] and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson ‘s YouTube music video recording spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act ( Obamacare ) -compliant health policy. [ 454 ] In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a touch at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not entirely advertise awareness of Obamacare [ 455 ] but more broadly to develop ways for government to better get in touch with the “ YouTube Generation. ” [ 451 ] Whereas YouTube ‘s implicit in ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube capacity creators ‘ fresh media grok was perceived necessity to better header with the web site ‘s perturb content and fickle consultation. [ 451 ] Some YouTube videos have themselves had a lineal impression on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims ( 2012 ) which spurred protests and related anti-american violence internationally. [ 456 ] TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a sealed sphere share their independently developed skills in YouTube video, therefore challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field. [ 441 ] Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have “ surprise implications ” for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music. [ 457 ] A 2017 New York Times Magazine article posited that YouTube had become “ the new talk radio “ for the far right. [ 458 ] Almost a year before YouTube ‘s January 2019 announcement that it would begin a “ gradual change ” of “ reducing recommendations of boundary line message and message that could misinform users in harmful ways ”, [ 459 ] Zeynep Tufekci had written in The New York Times that, “ ( gram ) iven its billion or so users, YouTube may be one of the most herculean radicalize instruments of the twenty-first hundred ”. [ 460 ] Under YouTube ‘s changes to its recommendation engine, the most commend channel evolved from conspiracy theorist Alex Jones ( 2016 ) to Fox News ( 2019 ). [ 461 ] The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers [ 462 ] and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra [ 463 ] selected their membership based on individual video performances. [ 441 ] [ 463 ] Further, the cybercollaboration jacob’s ladder video “ We Are the World 25 for Haiti ( YouTube edition ) “ was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distribute singers into a single musical work, [ 464 ] with The Tokyo Times noting the “ We Pray for You ” YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an exemplar of a swerve to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes. [ 465 ] The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video recording directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens, [ 466 ] that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries. [ 467 ] Similarly, in reception to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd ‘s video “ My report : struggling, strong-arm, suicide, self-harm, ” legislative action was undertake about immediately after her suicide to study the preponderance of bullying and form a national anti-bullying scheme. [ 468 ] In May 2018, after London Metropolitan Police claimed that drill music television glamorizing violence gave surface to gang violence, YouTube deleted 30 videos. [ 469 ]

Finances

prior to 2020, Google did not provide detail figures for YouTube ‘s run costs, and YouTube ‘s revenues in 2007 were noted as “ not material “ in a regulative file. [ 470 ] In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 gross at $ 200 million, noting progress in advertising sales. [ 471 ] In 2012, YouTube ‘s tax income from its ads program was estimated at $ 3.7 billion. [ 472 ] In 2013 it about doubled and estimated to hit $ 5.6 billion according to eMarketer, [ 472 ] [ 473 ] while others estimated $ 4.7 billion. [ 472 ] The huge majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by ad. [ 58 ] In May 2013, YouTube introduced a test scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $ 0.99 to $ 6.99 a calendar month. [ 474 ] The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of on-line subscription services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Hulu. [ 58 ] Google beginning published exact tax income numbers for YouTube in February 2020 as part of Alphabet ‘s 2019 fiscal report. According to Google, YouTube had made US $ 15.1 billion in ad gross in 2019, in contrast to US $ 8.1 billion in 2017 and US $ 11.1 billion in 2018. YouTube ‘s revenues made up closely 10 % of the entire Alphabet tax income in 2019. [ 475 ] [ 476 ] These revenues accounted for approximately 20 million subscribers combined between YouTube Premium and YouTube Music subscriptions, and 2 million subscribers to YouTube TV. [ 477 ] YouTube had $ 19.8 billion in gross in 2020. [ 1 ]

partnership with corporations

YouTube entered into a marketing and advertise partnership with NBC in June 2006. [ 478 ] In March 2007, it struck a consider with BBC for three channels with BBC contentedness, one for news program and two for entertainment. [ 479 ] In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television receiver episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for U.S. viewers called “ Shows ”. The move was intended to create contest with websites such as Hulu, which features corporeal from NBC, Fox, and Disney. [ 480 ] [ 481 ] In November 2009, YouTube launched a adaptation of “ Shows ” available to UK viewers, offering about 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners. [ 482 ] In January 2010, YouTube introduced an on-line film rentals service, [ 483 ] which is only available to users in the United States, Canada, and the UK as of 2010. [ 484 ] [ 485 ] [ needs update ] The service offers over 6,000 films. [ 486 ]

2017 advertiser boycott

In March 2017, the politics of the United Kingdom pulled its advertise campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremist content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would “ be delivered safely and appropriately ”. The Guardian newspaper, ampere well as other major british and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube in reaction to their ad appearing near offensive content. Google stated that it had “ begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a populace commitment to put in position changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear ”. [ 487 ] [ 488 ] In early April 2017, the YouTube transmit h3h3Productions presented attest claim that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an dysphemistic video recording containing Johnny Rebel music overlie on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video recording itself had not earned any ad tax income for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had been triggered by the practice of copyrighted subject in the video. [ 489 ] [ 490 ] On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that to “ ensure gross alone flows to creators who are playing by the rules ”, it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy submission reappraisal, and have at least 10,000-lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program. [ 491 ]

YouTuber earnings

In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program ( YPP ), a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the tax income produced by advertise on the site. [ 492 ] YouTube typically takes 45 percentage of the ad gross from television in the Partner Program, with 55 percentage going to the uploader. [ 493 ] [ 494 ] There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. [ 495 ] According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll ad on YouTube ( one that is shown before the video recording starts ) cost advertisers on average $ 7.60 per 1000 views. normally no more than half of the eligible videos have a pre-roll ad, ascribable to a lack of interest advertisers. [ 496 ] YouTube policies restrict certain forms of contented from being included in videos being monetized with advertising, including videos containing violence, strong linguistic process, intimate content, “ controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagination is not shown ” ( unless the contentedness is “ normally newsworthy or comedic and the godhead ‘s purpose is to inform or entertain ” ), [ 497 ] and videos whose drug user comments contain “ inappropriate ” contentedness. In 2013, YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a give subscription in decree for viewers to watch video recording. [ 499 ] [ 500 ] In April 2017, YouTube set an eligibility necessity of 10,000 life views for a yield subscription. [ 501 ] On January 16, 2018, the eligibility necessity for monetization was changed to 4,000 hours of watch-time within the past 12 months and 1,000 subscribers. [ 501 ] The travel was seen as an attack to ensure that television being monetized did not lead to controversy, but was criticized for penalizing smaller YouTube channels. [ 502 ] YouTube Play Buttons, a part of the YouTube Creator Rewards, are a recognition by YouTube of its most popular channels. [ 503 ] The trophies made of nickel plated copper-nickel debase, fortunate plated brass, argent plated metallic element, crimson, and red tint crystal glass are given to channels with at least one hundred thousand, a million, ten million, fifty million subscribers, and one hundred million subscribers, respectively. [ 504 ] [ 505 ] YouTube ‘s policies on “ advertiser-friendly content “ restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized ; this includes potent violence, terminology, [ 506 ] sexual content, and “ controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagination is not shown ”, unless the subject is “ normally newsworthy or comedic and the creator ‘s purpose is to inform or entertain ”. [ 507 ] In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced presentment system to inform users of these violations, YouTube ‘s policies were criticized by outstanding users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertise tax income on such videos was “ censoring by a unlike name ”. A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had “ improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators ”. [ 508 ] [ 509 ] [ 510 ] Boing Boing reported in 2019 that LGBT keywords resulted in demonetization. [ 511 ] As of November 2020 in the United States and June 2021 worldwide, [ 512 ] YouTube reserves the right to monetize any video on the platform, even if their uploader is not a extremity of the YouTube Partner Program. This will occur on channels whose capacity is deemed “ advertiser-friendly ”, and all tax income will go directly to Google without any parcel given to the uploader. [ 513 ]

tax income to copyright holders

The majority of YouTube ‘s advertise gross goes to the publishers and video producers who hold the rights to their videos ; the company retains 45 % of the ad tax income. [ 514 ] In 2010, it was reported that about a one-third of the video with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for gross. [ 515 ] In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the ad gross from video creators who posted screenshots of its games. [ 516 ] In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to parcel the tax income with the video recording creators through the Nintendo Creators Program. [ 517 ] [ 518 ] [ 519 ] On March 20, 2019, Nintendo announced on Twitter that the company will end the Creators program. Operations for the program ceased on March 20, 2019. [ 520 ] [ 521 ]

censoring and bans

 

Has local YouTube translation

 

accessible

 

Currently blocked

 

Previously blocked handiness of YouTube as of January 2021 : YouTube has been censored, filtered, or banned for a variety of reasons, including : [ 522 ]

  • Limiting public access and exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest.
  • Preventing criticism of a ruler (e.g. in North Korea), government (e.g. in China) or its actions (e.g. in Morocco), government officials (e.g. in Turkey and Libya), or religion (e.g. in Pakistan).
  • Morality-based laws, e.g. in Iran.

access to specific video is sometimes prevented due to copyright and intellectual property protective covering laws ( e.g. in Germany ), violations of hate actor’s line, and preventing access to videos estimate inappropriate for young person, [ 523 ] which is besides done by YouTube with the YouTube Kids app and with “ restricted manner “. [ 524 ] Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions much block social media sites, including YouTube, due to its bandwidth limitations [ 525 ] [ 526 ] and the site ‘s electric potential for beguilement. [ 522 ] [ 527 ] As of 2018, public access to YouTube is blocked in many countries, including China, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Turkmenistan, [ 528 ] Uzbekistan, [ 529 ] [ 530 ] Tajikistan, Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan. In some countries, YouTube is blocked for more limited periods of fourth dimension such as during periods of unrest, the runup to an election, or in response to approaching political anniversaries. In cases where the integral locate is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will much agree to remove or limit access to that video in ordering to restore service. [ 522 ] Reports emerged that since October 2019, comments posted with chinese characters insulting the taiwanese Communist Party ( 共匪 or “ communist bandit ” ) or ( 五毛 or “ 50 Cent Party “, referring to state-sponsored commentators ) were being mechanically deleted within 15 seconds. [ 531 ] specific incidents where YouTube has been blocked include :

See besides

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