YouTube – Wikipedia

Online video platform owned by Google
not to be confused with YouTube ( channel )
YouTube is an american on-line video communion and social media platform owned by Google. It was launched on February 14, 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. It is the second most chew the fat web site, right after Google itself. YouTube has more than one billion monthly users [ 7 ] who jointly watch more than one billion hours of video recording each day. [ 8 ] As of May 2019, videos were being uploaded at a pace of more than 500 hours of subject per minute. [ 9 ] [ 10 ]

In October 2006, YouTube was bought by Google for $ 1.65 billion. [ 11 ] Google ‘s ownership of YouTube has besides changed its clientele model ; it no longer generates tax income from advertisements alone. YouTube nowadays offers paid capacity such as movies and exclusive capacity. YouTube and approved creators participate in Google ‘s AdSense program, which generates more tax income for both parties. It has since evolved from a small television streaming platform to a boastfully service with report revenues of $ 19.8 billion in 2020. [ 1 ] Since its leverage by Google, YouTube has expanded beyond the web site into fluid apps, network television, and the ability to link with other services. Video categories on YouTube include music television, video clips, news, short-circuit films, feature films, documentaries, audio recordings, movie trailers, teasers, live stream, vlogs, and more. Most message is generated by individuals. This includes collaborations between YouTubers and corporate sponsors. Since 2015, established media corporations such as Disney, ViacomCBS, and WarnerMedia have created and expanded their corporate YouTube channels to advertise to a larger consultation. YouTube has had an unprecedented social impact, influencing popular culture, internet trends, and creating multimillionaire celebrities. Despite all its growth and success, YouTube has been widely criticized. criticism of YouTube includes ; the web site being used to facilitate the spread of misinformation, copyright issues, routine violations of its users ‘ privacy, enabling censoring, and endangering child safety and wellbeing .

History

Founding and initial growth ( 2005–2006 )

YouTube was founded by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. The trio were all early employees of PayPal, which left them enriched after the ship’s company was bought by eBay. [ 12 ] Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied calculator skill together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. [ 13 ] According to a fib that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the theme for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced trouble sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen ‘s apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen remarked that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party “ was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible ”. [ 14 ] Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first gear came from the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime indicate controversy, when Janet Jackson ‘s breast was concisely exposed by Justin Timberlake during the halftime prove. Karim could not easily find television clips of the incident and 2004 indian Ocean Tsunami on-line, which led to the estimate of a television sharing web site. [ 15 ] Hurley and Chen said that the original theme for YouTube was a video translation of an on-line dating military service, and had been influenced by the web site Hot or not. [ 14 ] [ 16 ] They created posts on Craigslist asking attractive women to upload videos of themselves to YouTube in switch over for a $ 100 honor. [ 17 ] difficulty in finding enough date videos led to a change of plans, with the web site ‘s founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of television. [ 18 ]
Broadcast Yourself” slogan was used until 2015. The YouTube logo was used from its launch until 2011. Another adaptation of this logo without their “ motto was used until 2015. YouTube began as a venture capital –funded engineering inauguration. Between November 2005 and April 2006, the company raised money from a variety of investors with Sequoia Capital, $ 11.5 million, and Artis Capital Management, $ 8 million, being the largest two. [ 12 ] [ 19 ] YouTube ‘s early headquarter were situated above a pizzeria and japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. [ 20 ] In February 2005, the company activated www.youtube.com. [ 21 ] The first video was upload April 23, 2005. Titled Me at the zoo, it shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo and can still be viewed on the site. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] In May, the company launched a public beta and by November, a Nike ad featuring Ronaldinho became the inaugural video to reach one million full views. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] The site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the web site was receiving 8 million views a day. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Clips at the clock were limited to 100 megabytes, a little as 30 seconds of footage. [ 28 ] contrary to popular belief, YouTube was not the first video-sharing web site on the Internet ; Vimeo was launched in November 2004, though that site remained a side project of its developers from CollegeHumor at the time and did not grow much, either. [ 29 ] The workweek of YouTube ‘s launching, NBC-Universal ‘s Saturday Night Live ran a skit “ Lazy Sunday “ by The Lonely Island. Besides helping to bolster ratings and long-run viewership for Saturday Night Live, “ lazy Sunday ” ‘s status as an early on viral video helped establish YouTube as an important web site. [ 30 ] Unofficial uploads of the skit to YouTube draw in more than five million corporate views by February 2006 before they were removed when NBCUniversal requested it two months by and by based on copyright concerns. [ 31 ] Despite finally being taken down, these duplicate uploads of the skit helped popularize YouTube ‘s reach and led to the upload of more third-party content. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] The site grew quickly and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being upload every day, and that the locate was receiving 100 million video views per sidereal day. [ 34 ] The choice of the name www.youtube.com led to problems for a similarly named web site, www.utube.com. That site ‘s owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube subsequently changed its web site to www.utubeonline.com. [ 35 ] [ 36 ]

Broadcast Yourself era ( 2006–2013 )

YouTube ‘s headquarter in San Bruno, California On October 9, 2006, Google announced that it had acquired YouTube for $ 1.65 billion in Google stock. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] The conduct was finalized on November 13, 2006. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Google ‘s acquisition launched new newfound interest in video-sharing sites ; IAC, which nowadays owned Vimeo, focused on supporting the content creators to distinguish itself from YouTube. [ 29 ] It is at this time YouTube issued the motto “ Broadcast Yourself ” .
YouTube logo from 2015 until 2017 The ship’s company experienced rapid increase. The Daily Telegraph wrote that in 2007, YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. [ 41 ] By 2010, the company had reached a grocery store share of around 43 % and more than 14 billion views of video, according to comScore. [ 42 ] That year, the company simplified its interface in order to increase the prison term users would spend on the web site. [ 43 ] In 2011, more than three billion videos were being watched each day with 48 hours of new videos upload every minute. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] however, most of these views came from a relatively belittled phone number of television ; according to a software engineer at that time, 30 % of video accounted for 99 % of views on the site. [ 47 ] That year, the company again changed its interface and at the same time, introduced a new logo with a benighted shade of crimson. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] A subsequent interface change, designed to unify the experience across desktop, television, and mobile, was rolled out in 2013. [ 50 ] By that point, more than 100 hours were being uploaded every moment, a number that would increase to 300 hours by November 2014. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] During this time, the ship’s company besides went through some organizational changes. In October 2006, YouTube moved to a fresh function in San Bruno, California. [ 53 ] Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as a head executive military officer of YouTube to take an advisory character and that Salar Kamangar would take over as heading of the company in October 2010. [ 54 ]

YouTube ‘s new CEO ( 2014–2018 )

YouTube logo since 2017 Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube in February 2014. [ 55 ] In January 2016, YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $ 215 million. The complex has 51,468 feather metres ( 554,000 square feet ) of distance and can house up to 2,800 employees. [ 56 ] YouTube formally launched the “ polymer ” redesign of its exploiter interfaces based on Material Design linguistic process as its default, american samoa well a redesigned logo that is built around the overhaul ‘s gambling button emblem in August 2017. [ 57 ] Through this period, YouTube tried several new ways to generate gross beyond advertisements. In 2013, YouTube launched a pilot plan for content providers to offer bounty, subscription-based channels within the platform. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] This campaign was discontinued in January 2018 and relaunched in June, with US $ 4.99 duct subscriptions. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] These channel subscriptions complemented the existing Super Chat ability, launched in 2017, which allows viewers to donate between $ 1 and $ 500 to have their comment highlighted. [ 62 ] In 2014, YouTube announced a subscription service known as “ Music Key, ” which bundled ad-free pour of music contented on YouTube with the existing Google Play Music service. [ 63 ] The servicing continued to evolve in 2015, when YouTube announced YouTube Red, a raw premium service that would offer ad-free access to all content on the chopine ( succeeding the Music Key service released the former year ), premium original series, and films produced by YouTube personalities, adenine well as background playback of capacity on fluid devices. YouTube besides released YouTube Music, a third base app oriented towards streaming and discovering the music contented hosted on the YouTube platform. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] [ 66 ] The company besides attempted to create products to appeal to specific kinds of viewers. YouTube released a mobile app known as YouTube Kids in 2015, designed to provide an experience optimized for children. It features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-appropriate message, and parental control features. [ 67 ] besides in 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming -oriented vertical and app for videos and live stream, intended to compete with the Amazon.com -owned Twitch. [ 68 ]

consolidation and controversy ( 2019–present )

By February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube were watched every day, and 400 hours of video were upload every minute. [ 8 ] [ 69 ] Two years late, the uploads had risen to more than 500 hours per moment. [ 9 ] During the COVID-19 pandemic, when most of the world was under stay-at-home orders, custom of services such as YouTube greatly increased. One data tauten estimated that YouTube was accounting for 15 % of all internet traffic, doubly its pre-pandemic level. [ 70 ] In reception to EU officials requesting that such services reduce bandwidth as to make sure checkup entities had sufficient bandwidth to partake information, YouTube along with Netflix stated they would reduce streaming quality for at least thirty days as to cut bandwidth practice of their services by 25 % to comply with the EU ‘s request. [ 71 ] YouTube late announced that they would continue with this move worldwide : “ We continue to work closely with governments and network operators around the earth to do our function to minimize stress on the system during this unprecedented situation. ” [ 72 ] The company was attacked on April 3, 2018, when a blast occurred at YouTube ‘s headquarters in San Bruno, California, which wounded four and resulted in one death ( the taw ). [ 73 ] Following a 2018 ailment alleging violations of the Children ‘s Online Privacy Protection Act ( COPPA ), [ 74 ] the company was fined $ 170 million by the FTC for collecting personal information from minors under the old age of 13. [ 75 ] YouTube was besides ordered to create systems to increase children ‘s privacy. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] Following criticisms of its implementation of those systems, YouTube started treating all television designated as “ made for kids ” as liable under COPPA on January 6, 2020. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] Joining the YouTube Kids app, the company created a supervised modality, designed more for tweens, in 2021. [ 80 ] Additionally in an campaign to compete with TikTok, YouTube has released YouTube Shorts which allows users to create short videos to music. During this time period, YouTube entered disputes with other technical school companies. For over a year, in 2018 and 2019, there was no YouTube app available for Amazon Fire products. In 2020, Roku removed the YouTube television app from its streaming storehouse after the two companies were ineffective to reach an agreement. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] After testing early in 2021, YouTube removed populace display of disfavor counts on videos in November 2021, citing its inner research that found users frequently used the dislike feature as a class of cyberbullying and brigade. [ 83 ] Almost all users felt that hide dislikes would make it harder for viewers to recognise clickbait or unhelpful videos, and that other features already existed for creators to limit strong-arm. Some theorised the removal of dislikes was influenced by YouTube Rewind 2018, which was universally panned and became the most-disliked video on the platform. [ 83 ] Others, interim, said the removal of the dislike release was to protect politicians and companies. [ 84 ] YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim referred to the update as “ a stupid idea ”, and that the reason behind the change was “ not a good one, and not one that will be publicly disclosed. ” [ 85 ] Karim felt that the ability for users on a sociable platform to identity bad content was necessity, saying, “ The process works, and there ‘s a name for it : the wisdom of solomon of the herd. The action breaks when the platform interferes with it. then, the chopine constantly declines. ” [ 86 ] [ 87 ] [ 88 ] Many users requested the disfavor count be added back, but as YouTube continued to upload more update videos, it became net that they would n’t add it back. [ 89 ]

Features

Video technology

YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video codecs, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol. [ 90 ] MPEG-4 Part 2 pour contained within 3GP containers are besides provided for low bandwidth connections. [ 91 ] By January 2019, YouTube had begun rolling out videos in AV1 format. [ 92 ] In 2021 it was reported that the caller was considering requiring AV1 in streaming hardware in arrange to decrease bandwidth and increase quality. [ 93 ] Video is normally streamed alongside the Opus and AAC audio codecs. [ 91 ] At launch in 2005, viewing YouTube video on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player circuit board to be installed in the browser. [ 94 ] In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of vane browsers supporting the HTML5 standard. [ 95 ] This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other circuit board to be installed. [ 96 ] On January 27, 2015, YouTube announced that HTML5 would be the default option playback method acting on hold browsers. [ 95 ] With the switch to HTML5 television streams using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP ( MPEG-DASH ), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available net. [ 97 ] The platform can serve videos at optionally lower resolution levels starting at 144p for smoothening playback in areas and countries with limited Internet speeds, improving compatibility, vitamin a well as for the preservation of express cellular data plans. The resolving power arrange can be adjusted mechanically based on detected connection accelerate, vitamin a well as be set manually. [ 98 ] [ 99 ] From 2008 to 2017, users could add “ annotations ” to their videos—such as pop fly textbook messages and hyperlinks and which allowed for synergistic videos. By 2019 all annotations had been removed from television, breaking some video which depended on the feature. YouTube introduced standardize widgets intended to replace annotations in a cross-platform manner, including “ end screens ” ( a customizable align of thumbnails for specified videos displayed near the end of the television ). [ 100 ] [ 101 ] [ 102 ] In 2018, YouTube became an ISNI register, and announced its purpose to begin creating ISNI identifiers to uniquely identify the musicians whose videos it features. [ 103 ]

Uploading

All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users can verify their account, normally through a fluid telephone, to gain the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, adenine good as produce live streams. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload longer videos, but a 10-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this distance were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films. [ 106 ] The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010. [ 107 ] Videos can be at most 256 GB in size or 12 hours, whichever is less. [ 104 ] As of 2021, automatic closed captions using speech recognition engineering when a video is upload is available in 13 languages, and can be machine-translated during playback. [ 108 ]

YouTube also offers manual closed captioning as part of its creator studio.[109] YouTube formerly offered a 'Community Captions' feature, where viewers could write and submit captions for public display upon approval by the video uploader, but this was deprecated in September 2020.[110]

YouTube accepts the most common container formats, including MP4, Matroska, FLV, AVI, WebM, 3GP, MPEG-PS, and the QuickTime File Format. Some intercede video recording formats ( i.e., primarily used for professional television editing, not for final examination delivery or memory ) are besides accepted, such as ProRes. [ 111 ] YouTube provides recommended encoding settings. [ 112 ] Each video is identified by an eleven-character case-sensitive alphanumeric Base64 string in the Uniform Resource Locator ( URL ) which can contain letters, digits, an underline ( _ ), and a dash ( - ). [ 113 ] In 2018, YouTube added a feature called Premiere which displays a telling to the user mention when the video will be available for the first base time, like for a bouncy pour but with a prerecord video. When the schedule time arrives, the video recording is aired as a alive broadcast with a two-minute countdown. optionally, a premiere can be initiated immediately. [ 114 ]

quality and formats

YouTube in the first place offered videos at only one timbre level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec ( a version of H.263 ), [ 115 ] [ 116 ] with infectious mononucleosis MP3 audio. [ 117 ] In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones. [ 118 ] In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels. [ 119 ] In December 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9. [ 120 ] With this fresh feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default television compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD digest was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolving power of up to 4096×3072 pixels. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] In July 2010, support for 4K resoluteness was added, with the videos playing at 3840 × 2160 pixels. [ 123 ] In June 2015, subscribe for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels. [ 124 ] In November 2016, defend for HDR television was added which can be encoded with hybrid log–gamma ( HLG ) or perceptual quantizer ( PQ ). [ 125 ] HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 tinge space. [ 126 ] In June 2014, YouTube began to deploy support for high-frame-rate television up to 60 frames per second gear ( as opposed to 30 before ), becoming available for drug user uploads in October. YouTube stated that this would enhance “ motion-intensive ” videos, such as video game footage. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ] [ 130 ] YouTube videos are available in a crop of quality levels. Viewers entirely indirectly influence the television timbre. Users choose between “ Auto ”, which adjusts resolution based on the internet connection, “ high picture Quality ” which will prioritize playing high-quality video, “ Data rescuer ” which will sacrifice video recording quality in favor of depleted data custom, and “ Advanced ” which lets the exploiter choose a current resolution. [ 131 ] It is not possible for the spectator to immediately choose a higher bitrate ( quality ) for any selected settlement. Since 2009, viewers have had the ability watch 3D videos. [ 132 ] In 2015, the company began natively supporting 360-degree video. Since April 2016, allowed hot streaming 360° video recording, and both convention and 360° television at up to 1440p, and since November 2016 both at at up to 4K ( 2160p ) resolution. [ 133 ] [ 134 ] [ 135 ] Citing the limit total of users who watched more than 90-degrees, the company began supporting an option stereoscopic television format known as VR180 which it said was easier to produce. [ 136 ] The company now allows users to watch any television using virtual world headsets. [ 137 ] In reception to increased viewership during the COVID-19 pandemic, the company temporarily downgraded the quality of its television. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] The party developed its own chip, called Argos, to help with encoding higher resolution videos in 2021. [ 140 ]

Live pour

YouTube carried out early experiments with live streaming, including a concert by U2 in 2009, and a question-and-answer school term with US President Barack Obama in February 2010. [ 141 ] These tests had relied on technology from 3rd-party partners, but in September 2010, YouTube began testing its own survive cyclosis infrastructure. [ 142 ] In April 2011, YouTube announced the rollout of YouTube Live. The creation of exist stream was initially restrict to choose partners. [ 143 ] It was used for real-time air of events such as the 2012 Olympics in London. [ 144 ] In October 2012, more than 8 million people determine Felix Baumgartner ‘s jump from the edge of distance as a bouncy stream on YouTube. [ 145 ] In May 2013, creation of exist stream was opened to verify users with at least 1,000 subscribers ; in August of that year the issue was reduced to 100 subscribers, [ 146 ] and in December the limit was removed. [ 147 ] In February 2017, live streaming was introduced to the official YouTube mobile app. live cyclosis via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10,000 subscribers, [ 148 ] but as of mid-2017 it has been reduced to 100 subscribers. [ 149 ] Live streams support HDR, can be up to 4K resolution at 60 federal protective service, and besides support 360° television. [ 134 ] [ 150 ]

User features

Community

On September 13, 2016, YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media -based feature that allows users to post text, images ( including GIFs ), live videos and others in a classify “ Community ” tab on their channel. [ 151 ] Prior to the release, respective creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find useful ; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3. [ 152 ] [ non-primary source needed ] After the feature has been formally released, the community post sport gets activated automatically for every transmit that passes a specific doorsill of subscriber counts or already has more subscribers. This doorsill was lowered over clock [ when? ], from 10,000 subscribers to 1500 subscribers, to 1000 subscribers, [ 153 ] [ non-primary source needed ] to 500 subscribers. [ 154 ] Channels that the community check becomes enabled for, get their channel discussions ( the identify before March 2013 “ One duct layout ” redesign finalization : “ transmit comments ” ) permanently erased, rather of co-existing or migrate. [ 155 ] [ non-primary source needed ]

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling “ community and collaboration on a scale never seen before ”, and added that YouTube “ harnesses the stupidity of herd a well as its wisdom of solomon. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of world merely for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hate ”. [ 156 ] The Guardian in 2009 described users ‘ comments on YouTube as : [ 157 ]

Juvenile, aggressive, misspelt, male chauvinist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video recording to providing a pointlessly detail description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile argue and unashamed ignorance—with the casual burst of wag shining through .

The Daily Telegraph commented in September 2008, that YouTube was “ ill-famed ” for “ some of the most confrontational and ungrammatical gossip exchanges on the internet ”, and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, “ a new piece of software that blocks ill-mannered and illiterate posts ”. [ 158 ] The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear “ offensive, unintelligent and crass ” to the “ huge majority ” of the people is barely unmanageable. [ 159 ] Google subsequently implemented a gossip system oriented on Google+ on November 6, 2013, that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account to comment on videos. The declared motivation for the change was giving creators more ability to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and timbre. [ 160 ] The fresh system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with pervert. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] In reply, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the interrogate “ why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video ? ” on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change. [ 163 ] The official YouTube announcement [ 164 ] received 20,097 “ thumbs down ” votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days. [ 165 ] Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that “ Google+ is nowhere near as democratic a social media network like Facebook, but it ‘s basically being forced upon millions of YouTube users who do n’t want to lose their ability to comment on videos ” and added that “ Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with the exclaim against the new gloss system ”. In the lapp article Melvin goes on to say : [ 166 ]

possibly exploiter complaints are justify, but the estimate of revamping the old system is n’t so bad. think of the crude, misogynous and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the final eight years on YouTube without any discernible temperance. Is n’t any attack to curb nameless libelers worth a shoot ? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity .

late, on July 27, 2015, Google announced in a blog mail that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+ explanation to post comments to YouTube. [ 167 ] then on November 3, 2016, YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially nauseating comments. [ 168 ] Creators may besides choose to keep or delete comments with links or hashtags in orderliness to combat spam. They can besides allow other users to moderate their comments. [ 169 ] In December 2020, it was reported that YouTube would launch a new sport that will warn users who post a comment that “ may be offensive to others. ” [ 170 ] [ 171 ]

content handiness

YouTube offers users the ability to view its video on web pages outside their web site. Each YouTube television is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web. [ 172 ] This functionality is much used to embed YouTube videos in social network pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video recording discourse, inspired by, or related to another drug user ‘s video can make a “ video recording reaction ”. The eleven character Youtube video identifier ( 64 possible characters used in each put ), allows for a theoretical maximal of 6411 or around 73.8 quintillion ( 73.8 billion billion ) unique ids. YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused have on August 27, 2013. [ 173 ] Embedding, rating, commenting and reaction posting can be disabled by the television owner. [ 174 ] YouTube does not normally offer a download link for its video, and intends for them to be viewed through its web site interface. [ 175 ] A small number of videos can be downloaded as MP4 files. [ 176 ] Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos. [ 177 ] In February 2009, YouTube announced a screen service, allowing some partners to offer television downloads for absolve or for a fee paid through Google Checkout. [ 178 ] In June 2012, Google sent discontinue and abstain letters threaten legal military action against several websites offering on-line download and conversion of YouTube videos. [ 179 ] In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site. [ 180 ] Users retain copyright of their own work under the default option Standard YouTube License, [ 181 ] but have the option to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose. Since July 2012, it has been possible to select a creative Commons attribution license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material. [ 182 ]

Platforms

Most mod smartphones are able of accessing YouTube video, either within an application or through an optimize web site. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video. [ 183 ] not all of YouTube ‘s videos are available on the mobile version of the site. [ 184 ] Since June 2007, YouTube ‘s videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This necessitate YouTube ‘s content to be transcoded into Apple ‘s prefer video standard, H.264, a process that took respective months. YouTube television can be viewed on devices including Apple television receiver, iPod Touch and the iPhone. [ 185 ] The mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5 in July 2010, avoiding the indigence to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for practice with touch screen controls. [ 186 ] The mobile adaptation is besides available as an app for the Android chopine. [ 187 ] [ 188 ] In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operational system. [ 189 ] According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35 % of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third-most used app. [ 190 ] A TiVo military service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos. [ 191 ] In January 2009, YouTube launched “ YouTube for television receiver ”, a adaptation of the web site tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its video to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles. [ 192 ] [ 193 ] During the month of June that same year, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen. [ 194 ] YouTube is besides available as an app on Xbox Live. [ 195 ] On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube television from the Wii channel. [ 196 ] An app was available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, but was discontinued in August 2019. [ 197 ] Videos can besides be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5. [ 198 ] Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013, [ 199 ] and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4. [ 200 ] YouTube launched as a downloadable app for the Nintendo Switch in November 2018. [ 201 ]

International and localization

On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt appeared in Paris to launch the newfangled localization of function system. [ 202 ] The interface of the web site is available with localize versions in 104 countries, one district ( Hong Kong ) and a cosmopolitan adaptation. [ 203 ]
The YouTube interface suggests which local adaptation should be chosen based on the IP address of the drug user. In some cases, the message “ This television is not available in your nation ” may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate subject. [ 250 ] The interface of the YouTube web site is available in 76 lyric versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions. Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the mailing of television deemed contemptuous to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material unsavory to Muslims. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] In October 2012, a local interpretation of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the world youtube.com.tr. The local adaptation is submit to the message regulations found in turkish law. [ 253 ] In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the british royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major commemorate companies occurred after failure to reach an agreement on a license cope. The dispute was resolved in September 2009. [ 254 ] In April 2009, a like challenge led to the removal of premium music video recording for users in Germany. [ 255 ]

Videos

In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television receiver. [ 256 ] In 2017, viewers on modal watched YouTube on mobile devices for more than an hour every day. [ 257 ] In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the watch counts of Universal and Sony music television on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a misdemeanor of the site ‘s terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate opinion counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active agent on YouTube. [ 258 ] [ 259 ] On August 5, 2015, YouTube patched the once ill-famed behavior which caused a video ‘s horizon count to freeze at “ 301 ” ( later “ 301+ ” ) until the actual count was verified to prevent opinion count imposter. [ 260 ] YouTube position counts once again updated in real time. [ 261 ] Since September 2019, subscriber counts are abbreviated. only three leading digits of channels ‘ subscriber counts are argue publicly, compromising the function of third-party real-time indicators such as that of Social Blade. claim counts remain available to channel operators inside YouTube Studio. [ 262 ] On November 11, 2021, after testing out this transfer in March 2021, YouTube announced it would start hiding dislike counts on videos, making them inconspicuous to viewers. The company stated the decision was in reply to experiments which confirmed that smaller YouTube creators were more likely to be targeted in dislike brigade and harassment. Creators will still be able to see the count of likes and dislikes in the YouTube Studio dashboard tool, according to YouTube. [ 263 ] [ 264 ] [ 265 ]

Copyright issues

YouTube has faced numerous challenges and criticisms in its attempts to deal with copyright, including the web site ‘s beginning viral video, Lazy Sunday, which had to be taken down, due to copyright concerns. [ 30 ] At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. [ 266 ] Despite this advice, many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material stay on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted on-line, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful ailment about copyright violation results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright violation against a user history will result in the account and all of its upload video being deleted. [ 267 ] [ 268 ] From 2007 to 2009 organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done excessively little to prevent the upload of copyrighted material. [ 269 ] [ 270 ] [ 271 ] In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders can not order the removal of an on-line file without first determining whether the post reflected fair use of the material. [ 272 ] YouTube ‘s owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in blue-ribbon cases where they believe honest use defenses enforce. [ 273 ] In the 2011 case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful manipulation of copyright put-down notices on YouTube. [ 274 ] He asserted seven causes of natural process, and four were ruled in Smith ‘s privilege. [ 275 ] In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. [ 276 ] On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google contented ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA. [ 277 ] In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the television files a DMCA counter-notice. [ 278 ] [ 279 ] As part of YouTube Music, Universal and YouTube signed an agreement in 2017, which was followed by break agreements other major labels, which gave the caller the correct to ad gross when its music was played on YouTube. [ 280 ] By 2019, creators were having television taken down or demonetized when Content ID identified even curtly segments of copyrighted music within a a lot longer video recording, with different levels of enforcement depending on the record label. [ 281 ] Experts noted that some of these clips said qualified for bazaar practice. [ 281 ]

Content ID

In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic pistol detection of upload videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from subject that it did not have the right to distribute. [ 282 ] The system, which was initially called “ Video Identification ” [ 283 ] [ 284 ] and subsequently became known as Content ID, [ 285 ] creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and television material, and stores it in a database. When a video is upload, it is checked against the database, and flags the television as a copyright irreverence if a couple is found. [ 286 ] When this occurs, the capacity owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video recording, or adding advertisements to the video recording. By 2010, YouTube had “ already invested tens of millions of dollars in this engineering ”. [ 284 ] In 2011, YouTube described Content ID as “ very accurate in finding uploads that look exchangeable to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File ”. [ 286 ] By 2012, Content ID accounted for over a third of the monetize views on YouTube. [ 287 ] An independent examination in 2009 upload multiple versions of the like song to YouTube and concluded that while the arrangement was “ amazingly resilient ” in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of video, it was not infallible. [ 288 ] The use of Content ID to remove material mechanically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair function. [ 289 ] If a YouTube drug user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision. [ 290 ] Before 2016, videos were not monetized until the dispute was resolved. Since April 2016, videos continue to be monetized while the challenge is in advance, and the money goes to whoever won the quarrel. [ 291 ] Should the uploader want to monetize the video recording again, they may remove the quarrel sound recording in the “ Video Manager ”. [ 292 ] YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site ‘s rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited duration. [ 293 ]

moderation and offensive content

YouTube has a jell of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the locate ‘s features. The upload of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material promote condemnable conduct is forbidden by YouTube ‘s “ Community Guidelines ”. [ 294 ] Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit message, video recording of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder ‘s accept, hate address, spam, and predatory behavior. [ 294 ] YouTube relies on its users to flag the contentedness of video as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a sag video recording to determine whether it violates the locate ‘s guidelines. [ 294 ] Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, [ 295 ] its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, [ 296 ] hosting video apparently targeting children but containing fierce or sexually indicative contented involving popular characters, [ 297 ] television of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their gossip sections, [ 298 ] and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with ad. [ 295 ] YouTube contracts companies to hire content moderators, who view contentedness flagged as potentially violating YouTube ‘s contented policies and determines if they should be removed. In September 2020, a class-action suit was filed by a former content moderator who reported developing post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) after an 18-month period on the job. The early contentedness moderator said that she was regularly made to exceed YouTube ‘s stated limited of four hours per day of viewing graphic contented. The lawsuit alleges that YouTube ‘s contractors gave short to no train or confirm for its moderator ‘s mental health, made prospective employees sign NDAs before showing them any examples of message they would see while reviewing, and censored all mention of trauma from its home forums. It besides purports that requests for extremely graphic subject to be blurred, reduced in size or made monochrome, per recommendations from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, were rejected by YouTube as not a high priority for the company. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] [ 301 ] To limit the spread of misinformation and forge news via YouTube, it has rolled out a comprehensive policy regarding how to planned to deal with technically manipulated video recording. [ 302 ] controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough catastrophe, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989. [ 303 ] [ 304 ] In July 2008, the culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was “ unimpressed ” with YouTube ‘s system for policing its television, and argued that “ proactive follow-up of content should be criterion practice for sites hosting user-generated content ”. YouTube responded by state :

We have rigid rules on what ‘s allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a calculate link from every YouTube page to make this process deoxyadenosine monophosphate easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our locate, we think this is by far the most effective direction to make sure that the bantam minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. [ 305 ] ( July 2008 )

In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its web site videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki. [ 306 ] YouTube pulled some of the video recording in November 2010, stating they violated the site ‘s guidelines. [ 307 ] In December 2010, YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content. [ 308 ] In 2018, YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other imposter newsworthiness, filling the infobox with contentedness from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia as a mean to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of lecture. [ 309 ] In the wake of the Notre-Dame de Paris ardor on April 15, 2019, respective user-uploaded videos of the landmark displace were flagged by YouTube ‘ system automatically with an Encyclopedia Britannica article on the false conspiracy theories around the September 11 attacks. respective users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithm had misidentified the fire video recording and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this. [ 310 ] Five conduct subject creators whose channels were based on LGBTQ+ materials filed a federal lawsuit against YouTube in August 2019, alleging that YouTube ‘s algorithm deviate discovery off from their channels, impacting their gross. The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithm warn message with words like “ lesbian ” or “ homosexual ”, which would be predominant in their channels ‘ content, and because of YouTube ‘s near-monopolization of on-line video services, they are abusing that position. [ 311 ]

YouTube as a tool to promote conspiracy theories and reactionary content

YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great bulge to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe converse. [ 312 ] [ 313 ] [ 314 ] According to an probe by The Wall Street Journal, “ YouTube ‘s recommendations frequently lead users to channels that feature conspiracy theories, partisan viewpoints and misleading videos, even when those users have n’t shown interest in such content. When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, frequently with more-extreme viewpoints. ” [ 312 ] [ 315 ] When users search for political or scientific terms, YouTube ‘s search algorithm much establish prominence to hoaxes and conspiracy theories. [ 314 ] [ 316 ] After YouTube drew controversy for giving top charge to videos promoting falsehoods and conspiracy when people made breaking-news queries during the 2017 Las Vegas film, YouTube changed its algorithm to give greater bulge to mainstream media sources. [ 312 ] [ 317 ] [ 318 ] [ 319 ] In 2018, it was reported that YouTube was again promoting bang content about breaking news, giving bang-up prominence to conspiracy videos about Anthony Bourdain ‘s death. [ 320 ] In 2017, it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites, and hate preachers who received ad payouts. [ 321 ] After firms started to stop advertise on YouTube in the aftermath of this report, YouTube apologized and said that it would give firms greater control over where ads got placed. [ 321 ] Alex Jones, known for rightist conspiracy theories, had built a massive hearing on YouTube. [ 322 ] YouTube drew criticism in 2018 when it removed a television from Media Matters compiling dysphemistic statements made by Jones, stating that it violated its policies on “ harassment and strong-arm ”. [ 323 ] On August 6, 2018, however, YouTube removed Alex Jones ‘ YouTube page following a content trespass. [ 324 ]

University of North Carolina professor Zeynep Tufekci has referred to YouTube as “ The Great Radicalizer ”, saying “ YouTube may be one of the most herculean radicalize instruments of the twenty-first century. ” [ 325 ] Jonathan Albright of the Tow Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University described YouTube as a “ conspiracy ecosystem ”. [ 314 ] [ 326 ] In January 2019, YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy start in the United States intended to stop recommending videos containing “ message that could misinform users in harmful ways. ” YouTube gave flat earth theories, miracle cures, and 9/11 trutherism as examples. [ 327 ] Efforts within YouTube engineering to stop recommending borderline extremist videos falling just curtly of forbid hate address, and track their popularity were primitively rejected because they could interfere with viewer engagement. [ 328 ] In late 2019, the web site began implementing measures directed towards “ raising authoritative capacity and reducing boundary line contented and harmful misinformation. ” [ 329 ] In a July 2019 cogitation based on ten YouTube searches using the Tor Browser related to climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views adverse to the scientific consensus on climate change. [ 330 ] A 2019 BBC probe of YouTube searches in ten unlike languages found that YouTube ‘s algorithm promoted health misinformation, including forge cancer cures. [ 331 ] In Brazil, YouTube has been linked to pushing pseudoscientific misinformation on health matters, vitamin a well as elevated reactionary fringe discourse and conspiracy theories. [ 332 ] In the Philippines, numerous channels such as “ Showbiz Fanaticz, ” “ Robin Sweet Showbiz, ” and “ PH BREAKING NEWS, ” each with at least 100,000 subscribers, have been proven to be spreading misinformation related to political figures ahead of the 2022 Philippine elections. [ 333 ]

Use among white supremacists

Before 2019, YouTube has taken steps to remove specific videos or channels related to supremacist subject that had violated its acceptable use policies but differently did not have site-wide policies against hate speech. [ 334 ] In the wake of the March 2019 Christchurch mosque attacks, YouTube and other sites like Facebook and Twitter that allowed user-submitted content drew criticism for doing little to moderate and control the spread of hate speech, which was considered to be a factor in the rationale for the attacks. [ 335 ] [ 336 ] These platforms were pressured to remove such contented, but in an interview with The New York Times, YouTube ‘s foreman product officer Neal Mohan said that unlike capacity such as ISIS videos which take a particular format and thus easy to detect through computer-aided algorithm, general hate lecture was more unmanageable to recognize and handle, and frankincense could not readily take natural process to remove without human interaction. [ 337 ] YouTube joined an inaugural led by France and New Zealand with other countries and technical school companies in May 2019 to develop tools to be used to block on-line hate lecture and to develop regulations, to be implemented at the national degree, to be levied against engineering firms that failed to take steps to remove such address, though the United States declined to participate. [ 338 ] [ 339 ] Subsequently, on June 5, 2019, YouTube announced a major switch to its terms of service, “ specifically prohibiting videos alleging that a group is superscript in order to justify discrimination, segregation or exception based on qualities like age, gender, race, caste, religion, intimate orientation or veteran status. ” YouTube identified specific examples of such videos as those that “ promote or glorify Nazi political orientation, which is inherently discriminatory ”. YouTube far stated it would “ remove contentedness denying that well-documented crimson events, like the Holocaust or the shoot at Sandy Hook Elementary, took place. ” [ 334 ] [ 340 ] In June 2020, YouTube banned several channels associated with egg white domination, including those of Stefan Molyneux, David Duke, and Richard B. Spencer, asserting these channels violated their policies on hate address. The ban occurred the same day that Reddit announced the bachelor of arts in nursing on several hate speech sub-forums including r/The_Donald. [ 341 ]

Handling of COVID-19 pandemic and other misinformation

Following the dissemination via YouTube of misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic that 5G communications engineering was creditworthy for the gap of coronavirus disease 2019 which led to multiple 5G towers in the United Kingdom being attacked by arsonists, YouTube removed all such videos linking 5G and the coronavirus in this manner. [ 342 ] YouTube extended this policy in September 2021 to cover videos disseminating misinformation related to any vaccine, including those long approved against measles or Hepatitis B, that had received approval from local anesthetic health authorities or the World Health Organization. [ 343 ] [ 344 ] The platform removed the accounts of anti-vaccine campaigners such as Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Joseph Mercola at this fourth dimension. [ 344 ] Two accounts linked to RT Deutsch, the german channel of the Russian RT network were removed adenine well for breaching YouTube ‘s policies. [ 343 ] Google and YouTube implemented policies in October 2021 to deny monetization or gross to advertisers or content creators that promoted climate change defense, which “ includes subject referring to climate change as a fraud or a scam, claims denying that long-run trends show the ball-shaped climate is warming, and claims denying that greenhouse gas emissions or human activity lend to climate change. ” [ 345 ] Child safety and wellbeing Leading into 2017, there was a meaning increase in the phone number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family ‘s activities, and former message creators moving away from content that frequently was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly fabric. In 2017, YouTube reported that time watching kin vloggers had increased by 90 %. [ 346 ] [ 347 ] however, with the increase in television have children, the locate began to face respective controversies related to child guard. During Q2 2017, the owners of popular channel FamilyOFive, which featured themselves playing “ pranks ” on their children, were accused of child pervert. Their videos were finally deleted, and two of their children were removed from their hands. [ 348 ] [ 349 ] [ 350 ] [ 351 ] A alike case happened in 2019 when the owners of the duct Fantastic Adventures was accused of abusing her adopt children. Her video recording would late be deleted. [ 352 ] belated that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and much featuring democratic characters in fierce, sexual or differently agitate situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views. The term “ Elsagate “ was coined on the Internet and then used by assorted news program outlets to refer to this controversy. [ 353 ] [ 354 ] [ 355 ] [ 356 ] On November 11, 2017, YouTube announced it was strengthening web site security to protect children from inapplicable contentedness. by and by that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family-friendly characters. As share of a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions besides targeted channels that showed children taking function in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the steering of adults. Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks, a duct with over 8.5 million subscribers, that featured a father and his two daughters in leftover and disconcerting situations. [ 357 ] [ 358 ] [ 359 ] [ 360 ] [ 361 ] According to analytics specialist SocialBlade, it earned up to £8.7 million annually prior to its omission. [ 362 ] even for content that appears to be aimed at children and appears to contain entirely child-friendly content, YouTube ‘s system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos. These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children ‘s content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate message masked as children ‘s contented. [ 363 ] Alternative, some of the most-watched children ‘s programming on YouTube comes from channels that have no identifiable owners, raising concerns of captive and purpose. One channel that had been of concern was “ Cocomelon “ which provided numerous mass-produce animated video aimed at children. Up through 2019, it had drawn up to US $ 10 million a month in ad gross and was one of the largest kid-friendly channels on YouTube before 2020. ownership of Cocomelon was ill-defined outside of its ties to “ Treasure Studio ”, itself an unknown entity, raising questions as to the channel ‘s function, [ 363 ] [ 364 ] [ 365 ] but Bloomberg News had been able to confirm and consultation the modest team of american owners in February 2020 regarding “ Cocomelon ”, who stated their goal for the duct was to just entertain children, wanting to keep to themselves to avoid attention from outside investors. [ 366 ] The anonymity of such channel raise concerns because of the miss of cognition of what purpose they are trying to serve. [ 367 ] The difficulty to identify who operates these channels “ adds to the miss of accountability ”, according to Josh Golin of the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, and educational adviser Renée Chernow-O’Leary found the videos were designed to entertain with no captive to educate, all leading to both critics and parents to be concerned for their children becoming excessively enraptured by the contented from these channels. [ 363 ] Content creators that seriously make kid-friendly videos have found it difficult to compete with larger channels like ChuChu television, unable to produce capacity at the like pace as these large channels, and lack the same means of being promoted through YouTube ‘s recommendation algorithm that the larger inspire channel networks have shared. [ 367 ] In January 2019, YouTube officially banned videos containing “ challenges that encourage acts that have an implicit in risk of hard physical harm ” ( such as, for model, the Tide Pod Challenge ) and videos featuring pranks that “ make victims believe they ‘re in physical danger ” or cause aroused straiten in children. [ 368 ]

Sexualization of children and pedophilia

besides in November 2017, it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children—often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics—were attracting comments from pedophiles [ 369 ] [ 370 ] with predators finding the video through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian. [ 370 ] other child-centric videos in the first place uploaded to YouTube began propagating on the iniquity vane, and uploaded or embedded onto forums known to be used by pedophiles. [ 371 ] As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about “ Elsagate ”, several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube. [ 356 ] [ 372 ] In December 2018, The Times found more than 100 grooming cases in which children were manipulated into sexually implicit behavior ( such as taking off clothes, adopting overtly intimate poses and touching other children inappropriately ) by strangers. [ 373 ] After a reporter flagged the television in question, half of them were removed, and the rest were removed after The Times contacted YouTube ‘s PR department. [ 373 ] In February 2019, YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a “ wormhole ” that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this type of television message, and make all of that user ‘s recommend contentedness feature lone these types of video. Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions or differently making indecent remarks. In some cases, other users had re-uploaded the television in unlisted form but with incoming links from other videos, and then monetized these, propagating this network. [ 374 ] In the wake of the controversy, the overhaul reported that they had deleted over 400 channels and tens of millions of comments, and reported the offending users to jurisprudence enforcement and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. A spokesperson explained that “ any content—including comments—that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have clear policies prohibiting this on YouTube. There ‘s more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch mistreat more quickly. ” [ 375 ] [ 376 ] Despite these measures, AT & T, Disney, Dr. Oetker, Epic Games, and Nestlé all pulled their ad from YouTube. [ 374 ] [ 377 ] subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block advertise on the types of video that have drawn these marauding comments. The military service explained that this was a impermanent measure while they explore other methods to eliminate the problem. [ 378 ] YouTube besides began to flag channels that predominantly feature children, and preemptively disable their comments sections. “ Trusted partners ” can request that comments be re-enabled, but the channel will then become responsible for moderating comments. These actions chiefly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected equally well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as intimate, such as gymnastics. YouTube stated it was besides working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the stylus of child predators. [ 379 ] [ 380 ] A associate try to algorithmically flag videos containing references to the string “ CP ” ( an abbreviation of child pornography ) resulted in some outstanding false positives involving unrelated topics using the same abbreviation, including videos related to the mobile television game Pokémon Go ( which uses “ CP ” as an abbreviation of the statistic “ Combat Power ” ), and Club Penguin. YouTube apologized for the errors and reinstated the affect video recording. [ 381 ] Separately, on-line trolls have attempted to have videos flagged for put-down or removal by commenting with statements alike to what the child predators had said ; this activity became an issue during the PewDiePie vanadium T-Series competition in early 2019. YouTube stated they do not take action on any video with these comments but those that they have flagged that are likely to draw child marauder activity. [ 382 ] In June 2019, The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended apparently innocuous videos of children. [ 383 ] As a consequence, Senator Josh Hawley stated plans to introduce federal legislation that would ban YouTube and early television sharing sites from including videos that predominantly feature minors as “ recommend ” video recording, excluding those that were “ professionally produced ”, such as videos of telecast talent shows. [ 384 ] YouTube has suggested electric potential plans to remove all videos featuring children from the main YouTube web site and transferring them to the YouTube Kids web site where they would have stronger controls over the recommendation system, american samoa well as other major changes on the chief YouTube web site to the recommended feature and autoplay organization. [ 385 ]

April Fools gags

YouTube featured an April Fools antic on the locate on April 1 of every year from 2008 to 2016. In 2008, all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley ‘s music video “ Never Gon na Give You Up “, a prank known as “ rickrolling “. [ 386 ] [ 387 ] The following class, when clicking on a television on the independent page, the whole page turned top down, which YouTube claimed was a “ modern layout ”. [ 388 ] In 2010, YouTube temporarily released a “ TEXTp ” mood which rendered video recording imagination into ASCII artwork letters “ in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $ 1 per second. ” [ 389 ] The next year, the web site celebrated its “ hundredth anniversary ” with a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat. [ 390 ] In 2012, clicking on the trope of a DVD future to the locate logo led to a video about a purport choice to order every YouTube television for home delivery on DVD. [ 391 ] In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim in an upload television that the video-sharing web site was launched as a contest which had ultimately come to an end, and would shut down for ten-spot years before being re-launched in 2023, featuring merely the winning video. The video starred respective YouTube celebrities, including Antoine Dodson. A video of two presenters announcing the nominate video streamed live for 12 hours. [ 392 ] [ 393 ] In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video recording trends, and revealed previews of upcoming trends, such as “ Clocking ”, “ Kissing Dad ”, and “ Glub Glub Water Dance ”. [ 394 ] The following year, YouTube added a music button to the video recording legal profession that played samples from “ Sandstorm “ by Darude. [ 395 ] In 2016, YouTube introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree modality with Snoop Dogg. [ 396 ]

Services

YouTube Community

In September 2016, YouTube announced the launch of its own sociable network feature named YouTube Community. [ 397 ] only users with over 500 subscribers have access to this. Community posts can include images, GIFs, text and video . Logo of YouTube Go YouTube Go is an android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on fluid devices in emerging markets. It is discrete from the company ‘s chief Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users. It besides allows users to preview television, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth, and offers more options for mobile data control and television resolution. [ 398 ] YouTube announced the project in September 2016 at an event in India. [ 399 ] It was launched in India in February 2017, and expanded in November 2017 to 14 early countries, including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Kenya, and South Africa. [ 400 ] [ 401 ] It was rolled out in 130 countries worldwide, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Iraq on February 1, 2018. The app is available to around 60 % of the earth ‘s population. [ 402 ] [ 403 ]

YouTube Kids

YouTube Kids is an american children ‘s video app developed by YouTube, a subsidiary company of Google. The app was developed in response to parental and politics examination on the content available to children. The app provides a version of the service-oriented towards children, with curated selections of content, parental command features, and filter of video deemed inappropriate view for children aged under 13, 8 or 5 depending on the long time grouping chosen. First released on February 15, 2015 as an Android and io fluid app, the app has since been released for LG, Samsung, and Sony smart TVs, a well as for Android television receiver. On May 27, 2020, it became available on Apple television. As of September 2019, the app is available in 69 countries, including Hong Kong and Macau, and one state. YouTube launched a web-based interpretation of YouTube Kids on August 30, 2019 .

YouTube Movies

YouTube Movies is a service by YouTube that shows movies via its web site. Many of the movies are free to view, with ads. [ 404 ]

YouTube Music

On September 28, 2016, YouTube named Lyor Cohen, the co-founder of 300 Entertainment and erstwhile Warner Music Group executive, the Global Head of Music. [ 405 ] In early on 2018, Cohen began hinting at the potential launch of YouTube ‘s fresh subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with early services such as Spotify and Apple Music. [ 406 ] On May 22, 2018, the music streaming platform named “ YouTube Music ” was launched. [ 407 ] [ 408 ]

YouTube premium

YouTube Premium ( once YouTube Red ) is YouTube ‘s premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to original programming, and background and offline video recording playback on mobile devices. [ 409 ] YouTube Premium was in the first place announced on November 12, 2014 as “ Music Key ”, a subscription music streaming military service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music “ All Access ” service. [ 410 ] [ 411 ] [ 412 ] On October 28, 2015, the avail was relaunched as YouTube Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos and entree to exclusive original subject. [ 413 ] [ 414 ] [ 415 ] As of November 2016, the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a farther million on a free-trial basis. [ 416 ] As of June 2017, the beginning temper of YouTube Originals had gotten 250 million views in total. [ 417 ]

YouTube Shorts

In September 2020, YouTube announced that it would be launching a beta translation of a newly platform of 15-second videos, like to TikTok, called YouTube Shorts. [ 418 ] [ 419 ] The platform was beginning tested in India but as of March 2021 has expanded to other countries including the United States with videos now able to be up to 1 infinitesimal long. [ 420 ] The chopine is not a standalone app, but is integrated into the main YouTube app. Like TikTok, it gives users access to built-in creative tools, including the possibility of adding accredited music to their videos. [ 421 ] The platform had its global beta launch in July 2021. [ 422 ]

YouTube Stories

In 2018, YouTube started testing a newly sport initially called “ YouTube Reels ”. [ 423 ] The feature of speech is closely identical to Instagram Stories and Snapchat Stories. YouTube former renamed the feature “ YouTube Stories ”. It is merely available to creators who have more than 10,000 subscribers and can only be posted/seen in the YouTube mobile app. [ 424 ]

TestTube

experimental features of YouTube can be accessed in an area of the locate named TestTube. [ 425 ] [ 426 ] For example, in October 2009, a comment search feature of speech accessible under /comment_search was implemented as separate of this program. The feature was removed belated. [ 427 ] late the lapp class, YouTube Feather was introduced as a lightweight alternate web site for countries with limited internet speeds. [ 428 ]

YouTube television

On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube Space Los Angeles, YouTube announced YouTube TV, an extraordinary MVPD -style subscription service that would be available for United States customers at a price of US $ 35 per month. initially launching in five major markets ( New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco ) on April 5, 2017, [ 429 ] [ 430 ] the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks ( ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox and NBC ), adenine well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, twenty-first Century Fox, NBCUniversal and Turner Broadcasting System ( including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, Cartoon Network, e !, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN ). Subscribers can besides receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra tip, and can access YouTube Premium original message. [ 431 ] [ 432 ]

Social impact

Both private individuals [ 433 ] and large production corporations [ 434 ] have used YouTube to grow audiences. Indie creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very short cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved debatable. [ 433 ] Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the web site at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early capacity creators accruing substantial followings and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television. [ 434 ] While YouTube ‘s revenue-sharing “ Partner Program ” made it potential to earn a solid living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $ 100,000 annually [ 435 ] and its ten-spot highest-earning channels grossing from $ 2.5 million to $ 12 million [ 436 ] —in 2012 CMU business editor program characterized YouTube as “ a free-to-use … promotional chopine for the music labels. ” [ 437 ] In 2013 Forbes ‘ Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists ‘ work must not only be of high choice, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and sociable media. [ 438 ] Videos of the 2.5 % of artists categorized as “ mega ”, “ mainstream ” and “ mid-sized ” received 90.3 % of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo in that year. [ 439 ] By early 2013, Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and relate writing style charts. [ 440 ]
Jordan Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards accepting for YouTube Observing that face-to-face communication of the character that online video recording convey has been “ fine-tune by millions of years of evolution, ” TED curator Chris Anderson referred to respective YouTube contributors and asserted that “ what Gutenberg did for write, on-line video can now do for face-to-face communication. ” [ 441 ] Anderson asserted that it is not far-fetched to say that on-line video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video recording contributors may be about to launch “ the biggest learn cycle in human history. ” [ 441 ] In education, for exercise, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube television tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan ‘s cousin into what Forbes’ Michael Noer called “ the largest school in the earth, ” with engineering poised to disrupt how people learn. [ 442 ] YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award, [ 443 ] the web site being described as a Speakers ‘ Corner that “ both embodies and promotes majority rule. ” [ 444 ] The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate partake of YouTube ‘s most subscribe channels sport minorities, contrasting with mainstream television receiver in which the stars are largely white. [ 445 ] A Pew Research Center study reported the growth of “ ocular journalism, ” in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in capacity universe. [ 446 ] The discipline besides concluded that YouTube was becoming an crucial platform by which people acquire news. [ 447 ] YouTube has enabled people to more immediately engage with politics, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates ( 2007 ) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video recording, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape. [ 448 ] Describing the arabian spring ( 2010–2012 ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist ‘s compendious description that organizing the political agitation involved using “ Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world. ” [ 449 ] In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the “ Kony 2012 “ television was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video “ will do more to lead to ( Kony ‘s ) death than all other action combined. ” [ 450 ]
[451][452] Leading YouTube content creators met at the White House with U.S. President Obama to discuss how government could better connect with the “ YouTube genesis. ” conversely, YouTube has besides allowed politics to more easily engage with citizens, the White House ‘s official YouTube impart being the seventh top newsworthiness organization manufacturer on YouTube in 2012 [ 453 ] and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson ‘s YouTube music television spoof to encourage new Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act ( Obamacare ) -compliant health indemnity. [ 454 ] In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a converge at the White House with leading YouTube contented creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare [ 455 ] but more by and large to develop ways for government to better plug in with the “ YouTube Generation. ” [ 451 ] Whereas YouTube ‘s implicit in ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators ‘ modern media understanding was perceived necessary to better cope with the web site ‘s perturb subject and fickle hearing. [ 451 ] Some YouTube videos have themselves had a address effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims ( 2012 ) which spurred protests and related anti-american violence internationally. [ 456 ] TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain airfield share their independently developed skills in YouTube video, frankincense challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field. [ 441 ] Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have “ storm implications ” for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music. [ 457 ] A 2017 New York Times Magazine article posited that YouTube had become “ the new talk radio “ for the far mighty. [ 458 ] Almost a class before YouTube ‘s January 2019 announcement that it would begin a “ gradual deepen ” of “ reducing recommendations of borderline content and content that could misinform users in harmful ways ”, [ 459 ] Zeynep Tufekci had written in The New York Times that, “ ( gigabyte ) iven its billion or therefore users, YouTube may be one of the most herculean radicalize instruments of the twenty-first hundred ”. [ 460 ] Under YouTube ‘s changes to its recommendation engine, the most commend channel evolved from conspiracy theorist Alex Jones ( 2016 ) to Fox News ( 2019 ). [ 461 ] The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers [ 462 ] and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra [ 463 ] selected their membership based on individual television performances. [ 441 ] [ 463 ] Further, the cybercollaboration charity video “ We Are the World 25 for Haiti ( YouTube edition ) “ was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distribute singers into a single musical influence, [ 464 ] with The Tokyo Times noting the “ We Pray for You ” YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a vogue to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes. [ 465 ] The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a individual YouTube television directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens, [ 466 ] that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and respective cabinet secretaries. [ 467 ] Similarly, in reaction to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd ‘s video “ My fib : struggle, strong-arm, suicide, self-harm, ” legislative action was undertake about immediately after her suicide to study the preponderance of strong-arm and form a home anti-bullying scheme. [ 468 ] In May 2018, after London Metropolitan Police claimed that drill music television glamorizing ferocity gave advance to gang violence, YouTube deleted 30 videos. [ 469 ]

Finances

prior to 2020, Google did not provide detail figures for YouTube ‘s running costs, and YouTube ‘s revenues in 2007 were noted as “ not material “ in a regulative filing. [ 470 ] In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 gross at $ 200 million, noting progress in advertise sales. [ 471 ] In 2012, YouTube ‘s gross from its ads course of study was estimated at $ 3.7 billion. [ 472 ] In 2013 it about doubled and estimated to hit $ 5.6 billion according to eMarketer, [ 472 ] [ 473 ] while others estimated $ 4.7 billion. [ 472 ] The huge majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by ad. [ 58 ] In May 2013, YouTube introduced a test outline of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $ 0.99 to $ 6.99 a calendar month. [ 474 ] The motion was seen as an attack to compete with other providers of on-line subscription services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Hulu. [ 58 ] Google first published accurate tax income numbers for YouTube in February 2020 as depart of Alphabet ‘s 2019 fiscal report. According to Google, YouTube had made US $ 15.1 billion in ad gross in 2019, in contrast to US $ 8.1 billion in 2017 and US $ 11.1 billion in 2018. YouTube ‘s revenues made up closely 10 % of the total Alphabet tax income in 2019. [ 475 ] [ 476 ] These revenues accounted for approximately 20 million subscribers combined between YouTube Premium and YouTube Music subscriptions, and 2 million subscribers to YouTube TV. [ 477 ] YouTube had $ 19.8 billion in gross in 2020. [ 1 ]

partnership with corporations

YouTube entered into a marketing and advertise partnership with NBC in June 2006. [ 478 ] In March 2007, it struck a hand with BBC for three channels with BBC contented, one for news and two for entertainment. [ 479 ] In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television receiver episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for U.S. viewers called “ Shows ”. The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney. [ 480 ] [ 481 ] In November 2009, YouTube launched a adaptation of “ Shows ” available to UK viewers, offering about 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners. [ 482 ] In January 2010, YouTube introduced an on-line film rentals serve, [ 483 ] which is only available to users in the United States, Canada, and the UK as of 2010. [ 484 ] [ 485 ] [ needs update ] The military service offers over 6,000 films. [ 486 ]

2017 advertiser boycott

In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremist content. The government demanded assurances that its ad would “ be delivered safely and appropriately ”. The Guardian newspaper, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as early major british and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertise on YouTube in reply to their ad appearing near offensive subject. Google stated that it had “ begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear ”. [ 487 ] [ 488 ] In early April 2017, the YouTube channel h3h3Productions presented tell claim that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major sword ad on an offense video recording containing Johnny Rebel music overlay on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the television itself had not earned any ad tax income for the uploader. The television was retracted after it was found that the ads had been triggered by the use of copyrighted message in the television. [ 489 ] [ 490 ] On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that to “ ensure tax income only flows to creators who are playing by the rules ”, it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy conformity review, and have at least 10,000-lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program. [ 491 ]

YouTuber earnings

In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program ( YPP ), a organization based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video recording to plowshare the gross produced by advertising on the locate. [ 492 ] YouTube typically takes 45 percentage of the advertising gross from video in the Partner Program, with 55 percentage going to the uploader. [ 493 ] [ 494 ] There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. [ 495 ] According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll ad on YouTube ( one that is shown before the video starts ) price advertisers on average $ 7.60 per 1000 views. normally no more than half of the eligible videos have a pre-roll ad, ascribable to a lack of concern advertisers. [ 496 ] YouTube policies restrict certain forms of capacity from being included in videos being monetized with advertise, including videos containing ferocity, strong language, intimate content, “ controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagination is not shown ” ( unless the content is “ normally newsworthy or comedic and the godhead ‘s intent is to inform or entertain ” ), [ 497 ] and videos whose exploiter comments contain “ inappropriate ” content. In 2013, YouTube introduced an choice for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch television. [ 499 ] [ 500 ] In April 2017, YouTube set an eligibility prerequisite of 10,000 life views for a pay subscription. [ 501 ] On January 16, 2018, the eligibility requirement for monetization was changed to 4,000 hours of watch-time within the by 12 months and 1,000 subscribers. [ 501 ] The act was seen as an undertake to ensure that video being monetized did not lead to controversy, but was criticized for penalizing smaller YouTube channels. [ 502 ] YouTube Play Buttons, a separate of the YouTube Creator Rewards, are a recognition by YouTube of its most popular channels. [ 503 ] The trophies made of nickel plated copper-nickel alloy, gold plated brass, silver plated alloy, crimson, and crimson tint crystal glass are given to channels with at least one hundred thousand, a million, ten million, fifty dollar bill million subscribers, and one hundred million subscribers, respectively. [ 504 ] [ 505 ] YouTube ‘s policies on “ advertiser-friendly capacity “ restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized ; this includes firm violence, language, [ 506 ] intimate content, and “ controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, lifelike disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagination is not shown ”, unless the subject is “ normally newsworthy or comedic and the creator ‘s intent is to inform or entertain ”. [ 507 ] In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube ‘s policies were criticized by big users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn ad tax income on such videos was “ censoring by a different mention ”. A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not newfangled, the service had “ improved the notification and appeal work to ensure better communication to our creators ”. [ 508 ] [ 509 ] [ 510 ] Boing Boing reported in 2019 that LGBT keywords resulted in demonetization. [ 511 ] As of November 2020 in the United States and June 2021 worldwide, [ 512 ] YouTube reserves the right to monetize any video on the platform, even if their uploader is not a penis of the YouTube Partner Program. This will occur on channels whose contented is deemed “ advertiser-friendly ”, and all tax income will go immediately to Google without any share given to the uploader. [ 513 ]

gross to copyright holders

The majority of YouTube ‘s advertising tax income goes to the publishers and video recording producers who hold the rights to their videos ; the party retains 45 % of the ad tax income. [ 514 ] In 2010, it was reported that closely a third of the video recording with advertisements were uploaded without license of the copyright holders. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for gross. [ 515 ] In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright possession and claiming the advertising tax income from video recording creators who posted screenshots of its games. [ 516 ] In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to plowshare the tax income with the video creators through the Nintendo Creators Program. [ 517 ] [ 518 ] [ 519 ] On March 20, 2019, Nintendo announced on Twitter that the company will end the Creators platform. Operations for the program ceased on March 20, 2019. [ 520 ] [ 521 ]

censoring and bans

 

Has local anesthetic YouTube adaptation

 

accessible

 

Currently blocked

 

Previously blocked handiness of YouTube as of January 2021 : YouTube has been censored, filtered, or banned for a diverseness of reasons, including : [ 522 ]

  • Limiting public access and exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest.
  • Preventing criticism of a ruler (e.g. in North Korea), government (e.g. in China) or its actions (e.g. in Morocco), government officials (e.g. in Turkey and Libya), or religion (e.g. in Pakistan).
  • Morality-based laws, e.g. in Iran.

entree to specific video recording is sometimes prevented due to copyright and cerebral place protective covering laws ( e.g. in Germany ), violations of hate actor’s line, and preventing entree to videos judge inappropriate for youth, [ 523 ] which is besides done by YouTube with the YouTube Kids app and with “ restrict modality “. [ 524 ] Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to its bandwidth limitations [ 525 ] [ 526 ] and the site ‘s potential for distraction. [ 522 ] [ 527 ] As of 2018, public access to YouTube is blocked in many countries, including China, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Turkmenistan, [ 528 ] Uzbekistan, [ 529 ] [ 530 ] Tajikistan, Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan. In some countries, YouTube is blocked for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to approaching political anniversaries. In cases where the integral web site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will frequently agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service. [ 522 ] Reports emerged that since October 2019, comments posted with taiwanese characters insulting the chinese Communist Party ( 共匪 or “ communist bandit ” ) or ( 五毛 or “ 50 Cent Party “, referring to state-sponsored commentators ) were being mechanically deleted within 15 seconds. [ 531 ] particular incidents where YouTube has been blocked admit :

See besides

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References

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