“ The Golden Lotus ” redirects here. For other uses, see golden Lotus
Jin Ping Mei ( taiwanese : 金瓶梅 ) —translated into English as The Plum in the Golden Vase or The Golden Lotus —is a chinese novel of manners composed in common Chinese during the latter half of the sixteenth century [ 1 ] [ 2 ] during the late Ming dynasty ( 1368–1644 ). It was published under the pseudonym Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng ( 蘭陵笑笑生 ), “ The Scoffing Scholar of Lanling, ” [ 3 ] but the only hint to the actual identity is that the author hailed from Lanling County in contemporary Shandong ). [ 4 ] The novel circulated in manuscript equally early as 1596, and may have undergo revision up to its first printed edition in 1610. The most widely understand recension, edited and published with commentaries by Zhang Zhupo in 1695, deleted or rewrote passages important in understanding the generator ‘s intentions. The explicit depiction of sex garnered the novel a notoriety akin to Fanny Hill and Lolita in english literature, but critics such as the translator David Tod Roy see a firm moral structure which exacts retribution for the sexual libertinism of the central characters. [ 6 ]
Reading: Jin Ping Mei – Wikipedia
Jin Ping Mei takes its name from the three central female characters— Pan Jinlian ( 潘金蓮, whose given name means “ gold Lotus ” ) ; Li Ping’er ( 李瓶兒, literally “ little Vase ” ), a concubine of Ximen Qing ; and Pang Chunmei ( 龐春梅, “ spring plum blossoms “ ), a young maid who rose to baron within the syndicate. [ 4 ] taiwanese critics see each of the three taiwanese characters in the title as symbolizing an aspect of homo nature, such as mei ( 梅 ), clean blossoms, being metaphorical for sex. Princeton University Press, in describing the Roy transformation, calls the novel “ a landmark in the development of the narrative artwork form—not only from a specifically chinese position but in a world-historical context … noted for its amazingly modern proficiency ” and “ with the possible exception of The Tale of Genji ( c. 1010 ) and Don Quixote ( 1605, 1615 ), there is no earlier make of prose fiction of equal sophism in global literature. ” [ 1 ] Jin Ping Mei is considered one of the six classics of chinese literature .
diagram [edit ]
Jin Ping Mei. chapter 4 exemplification of Jin Ping Mei is framed as a by-product from Water Margin. The begin chapter is based on an episode in which “ Tiger Slayer ” Wu Song avenges the murder of his old brother by viciously killing his brother ‘s former wife and murderer, Pan Jinlian. The narrative, apparently set during the years 1111–1127 ( during the Northern Song dynasty ), centers on Ximen Qing ( 西門慶 ), a bribe social mounter and lascivious merchant who is affluent enough to marry six wives and concubines. After Pan Jinlian secretly murders her conserve, Ximen Qing takes her as one of his wives. The floor follows the domestic intimate struggles of the women within his family as they clamor for prestige and influence amidst the gradual decline of the Ximen kin. In Water Margin, Ximen Qing is viciously killed in wide daylight by Wu Song ; in Jin Ping Mei, Ximen Qing in the goal dies from an overdose of aphrodisiac administered by Jinlian in order to keep him aroused. The intervene sections, however, differ in about every manner from Water Margin. [ 7 ] In the course of the novel, Ximen has 19 sexual partners, including his six wives and mistresses, and a male servant. [ 8 ] There are 72 detailed intimate episodes. [ 9 ]
evaluation [edit ]
Ximen and Golden Lotus, exemplification from 17th-century chinese edition For centuries identified as pornographic and officially banned most of the time, the book has however been read surreptitiously by many of the educate class. The early Qing dynasty critic Zhang Zhupo remarked that those who regard Jin Ping Mei as pornographic “ read lone the pornographic passages. ” [ 10 ] The influential writer Lu Xun, writing in the 1920s, called it “ the most celebrated of the novels of manners “ of the Ming dynasty, and reported the opinion of the Ming dynasty critic, Yuan Hongdao, that it was “ a classical second entirely to Shui Hu Zhuan. ” He added that the fresh is “ in effect a condemnation of the whole rule class. ” [ 11 ] The american learner and literary critic Andrew H. Plaks ranks Jin Ping Mei as one of the “ Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel ” along with Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin, and Journey to the West, which jointly constitute a technical breakthrough and reflect new cultural values and intellectual concerns. [ 12 ] It has been described as a “ milestone ” in chinese fabrication for its quality exploitation, particularly its complex treatment of female figures. [ 13 ] Phillip S. Y. Sun argued that although in craft it is a lesser work than Dream of the Red Chamber, it surpasses the latter in “ depth and vigor ”. [ 14 ] The report contains a storm number of descriptions of sexual objects and coital techniques that would be considered juju today, adenine good as a big total of bawdry jokes and external oblique muscle but titillating sexual euphemism. Some critics have argued that the highly sexual descriptions are essential, and have exerted what has been termed a “ emancipate ” influence on other taiwanese novels that deal with sex, most notably the Dream of the Red Chamber. David Tod Roy ( whose translation of the novel was published 1993–2013 ) sees an “ uncompromising moral vision, ” which he associates with the philosophy of Xunzi, who held that human nature is evil and can be redeemed only through moral transformation. [ 10 ]
writing [edit ]
The identity of the generator has not yet been established, but the coherence of the manner and the elusive symmetry of the narrative detail to a single writer. The british orientalist Arthur Waley, writing before recent research, in his insertion to the 1942 translation suggested that the strongest campaigner as writer was Xu Wei, a celebrated painter and member of the “ realistic ” Gong’an school of letters, urging that a comparison could be made of the poems in the Jin Ping Mei to the poetic production of Xu Wei, but left this tax to future scholars. [ 16 ] The “ morph ” of the writer from Xu Wei to Wang Shizhen would be explained by the rehearse of attributing “ a democratic work of literature to some long-familiar writer of the period ”. [ 17 ] other proposed candidates include Li Kaixian and Tang Xianzu. In 2011, Zhejiang University learner Xu Yongming argued that Bai Yue was possibly the writer. [ 18 ] In accession to the identity of the generator themself, this novel contains extensive quotations of the writings of other authors. According to The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Jin Ping Mei’ second sources include “ “ common stories, works for pornography, histories, drama, popular songs, jokes, and prosimetric narratives, and even texts far outside of the parameters of the literary, such as official gazettes, contracts, and menu. ” [ 19 ]
Translations [edit ]
english [edit ]
- Clement Egerton. The Golden Lotus (London: Routledge, 1939). 4 vols. Reprinted: Clarendon, VT: Tuttle, 2011 With an Introduction by Robert E. Hegel. Vol 1. ISBN 9780710073495. :Translated with the assistance of the celebrated Chinese novelist Lao She, who because of the nature of the novel refused to claim any credit for its English version. It was an “expurgated”, though complete, translation of the 1695 edition, as the more explicit parts were rendered in Latin. :Republished in 2008, as part of the Library of Chinese Classics. In 5 volumes as the book is in a mirror format with the simplified Chinese next to the English translation.
- Bernard Miall, translated from the German of Franz Kuhn with an Introduction by Arthur Waley.Chin P’ing Mei: The Adventurous History of Hsi Men and His Six Wives. (London: John Lane, 1942; rpr. New York, Putnam, 1947). (Note: The Putnam edition was first published in two volumes in 1940, thus the 1942 and 1947 dates are incorrect. The 1947 printing was in one volume and is considered to be inferior to the 1940 two-volume edition. Oddly, however, the Waley introduction in the 1940 edition does not mention either translators, Kuhn or Miall, as the sources of the English version.)
- Roy, David Tod (1993). The Plum in the Golden Vase. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691125341. 5 volumes. 1993–2013. A complete and annotated translation of the 1610 edition presumed to be closest to the author’s intention.
early Languages [edit ]
- The book was translated into Manchu as ᡤᡳᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ Wylie: Gin p’ing mei pitghe, (Möllendorff: Gin ping mei bithe) and published in a bilingual edition as early as 1708. The title is a phonetic transcription of each syllable in the Manchu script, rather than a translation of the meaning. It has been digitized by the Documentation and Information Center for Chinese Studies of Kyoto University and is available online here.
- La merveilleuse histoire de Hsi Men avec ses six femmes. (Paris: Le Club Français du Livre, 1949 – 1952, reprinted, 1967). 2 volumes.
- Fleur en fiole d’or, Jin Ping Mei Cihua. Translated and annotated by André Lévy. La Pléiade Gallimard 1985. Folio Gallimard 2004. 2 volumes ISBN 2-07-031490-1. The first translation into a Western language to use the 1610 edition.
- Complete Russian translation, 5 volumes, 1994—2016: Цзинь, Пин, Мэй, или Цветы сливы в золотой вазе. Т. 1—3. Иркутск: Улисс, 1994. 448+512+544 с. ISBN 5-86149-004-X. Т. 4, кн. 1—2. М.: ИВ РАН, 2016. 640+616 с. ISBN 978-5-89282-698-3, ISBN 978-5-89282-697-6
- A chinese version of the novel
- An illustration of a firework display from a 1628–1643 edition of Jin Ping Mei from the Ming era. [ 23 ]
- A bible of comment on Jin Ping Mei, which is renowned as the greatest of all Ming erotic novels
Adaptations [edit ]
- Golden Lotus (musical; premiered in Hong Kong in 2014)
- The Concubines (Japan, 1968)
- The Golden Lotus (Hong Kong, 1974) This is the first appearance in a film by Jackie Chan.
- Ban Geum-ryeon (South Korea, 1982)
- The Forbidden Legend Sex & Chopsticks (Hong Kong, 2008)
- The graphic novelist Magnus created a truncated graphic novel loosely based on the Jin Ping Mei, entitled the 110 Sexpills which focused on the sexual exploits and eventual downfall of Ximen Qing (albeit with the Ximen surname being taken as the character’s given name and vice versa).
- The Japanese manga by Mizukami Shin 金瓶梅・奇伝 炎のくちづけ (Kinpeibai Kinden Honoo no Kuchizuke) is loosely based on Jin Ping Mei. (2004)